Ethical approvals, Patient's rights, and Informed consent.

Because patients have the right to privacy, all studies should be conducted with their informed consent. Unless the information is required for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent, guardian, or legally authorized representative) gives written informed consent for publication, no identifying information should be published in written descriptions, photographs, or pedigrees. When informed consent has been obtained, the article should state so. Human subjects research must adhere to the ethical standards outlined in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964, as revised in 2000. The institutional human experimentation committee or equivalent should approve all experiments.

Please do not include the patient's actual written informed consent with your article because doing so violates the patient's confidentiality. The authors must include a statement about this in the manuscript text