Effect of Self-Efficacy and Achievement Motivation on Academic Performance of High School Students


1Sri Ram institute of teacher education


Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s belief in their ability to successfully accomplish a specific task or goal. Achievement motivation, on the other hand, is the drive or desire to attain success and excel in one’s endeavors. Both concepts are interconnected, as a person with high self-efficacy is likely to exhibit stronger achievement motivation. This combination often leads to increased effort, persistence, and overall better performance in various areas of life. Motivation is identified as the fundamental aspect of learning ―To be motivated means to be moved to do something. Components of Motivation are excitement, interest and enthusiasm towards learning. It is argued by Self-Determination Theory that motivation is of various types based on the reasons or goal made for any action. The Social Cognitive Theory, (SCT; Bandura, 1986) postulates that human behavior is a dynamic and reciprocal interaction of personal factors, behavior, and the environment. SCT also states that a person’s behavior is influenced by both personal and environmental factors. In addition, SCT posits that individuals observe consequences of engaging in similar behavior both themselves and by others and form expectations of the outcomes of their behavior. The social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) postulates that the “person variables” of self-efficacy beliefs, vocational interests, performance goals and outcome-expectancies help to develop an individual’s academic and vocational choices. Extant vocational psychology literature has demonstrated that these elements are key to the development of academic and vocational choices (e.g., Betz & Hackett, 1997; Lent, Lopez, & Biescke, 1991, 1993; Sax & Bryant, 2006), and of academic and career performance (e.g., Lent et. Al., 1993; Swanson, 1993). This study builds on Bandura’s social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) and SCCT. Traditionally, some occupations such as medicine and law have been male-dominated, and certain other occupations such as teaching, nursing, dental hygienist etc. have been predominantly female-dominated (Betz, 2004). Vocational researchers are aware of the small numbers of women operating within many areas within the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career fields (e.g., Fitzgerald & Harmon, 2001; Scott & Mallinckrodt, 2005). While in the United States, more and more women are now entering the previously male-dominated professions (Fitzgerald &Harmon, 2001), the progress towards occupational desegregation remains painfully slow, and men still dominate the STEM occupations. It is of great significance therefore, to understand these trends better with an aim to increase the proportion of women within these fields. Betz (2004) considers mathematics as the ‘critical filter’ that women might tend to ignore, thus shutting out the opportunities to qualify for some of the most lucrative jobs available. The choice of women to enter nontraditional careers depends on several environmental and contextual factors (e.g. Bleeker& Jacobs, 2004; Gottfredson, 1996; Van Leuvan, 2004). The self-efficacy and interests of women might have significant influences on their performance and persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related career fields.


self-efficacy, achievement motivation, cognitive development

Paper Details
IssueIssue 6