The Push and Pull Factors Regarding Community Involvement in Lifelong Learning (LLL) in Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka

1Shahrun Nizam Abdul-Aziz, Normala Zulkifli, Zainizam Zakariya, Norimah Rambeli@Ramli, Azila Abdul Razak, Fadhilah Mat Yamin


This study aimed to identify the push and pull factors which influenced community involvement in lifelong learning (LLL). Some 305 LLL participants from polytechnics, community colleges and Open University Malaysia (OUM) were chosen as the study sample. In this study, the analysis factor method or the factor component analysis was utilised to assess whether an item could be categorised according to the same features such as measuring the same item as well as deleting items which were not relevant with the study. Previously, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test and the Bartlett Sphericity test were conducted to measure the significance of each item in the variables identified. The study findings showed that the factor analysis managed to extract 3 push factors : interest and attitude, family and friends which influenced the decision to enrol in lifelong learning. On the other hand, the factor analysis also managed to extract four pull factors : curriculum and teaching staff, career prospects, promotions and facilities which attracted community involvement in lifelong learning. The study also showed that the push and pull factors were all important in influencing community involvement in lifelong learning in Malaysia. The independent t-test findings also indicated that there was a significant mean score difference for the curriculum and teaching staff factor based on ethnicity.


lifelong learning, polytechnics, community colleges, factor analysis, push-pull factors.

Paper Details
IssueIssue 8