Latin American Participation in the Scientific Production on Eating Disorders in Scopus (2015-2018)
The International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation
 

Latin American Participation in the Scientific Production
on Eating Disorders in Scopus (2015-2018)

Ronald M Hernández1
Yolvi Ocaña-Fernández2
Doris Elida Fuster Guillén2
Edgar Froilan Damian NÚñez2
Miguel Gerardo Inga Arias2
Eduardo Ernesto Durand HipÓlito2
Juan José Flores-Cueto3
Rafael Garay-Argandoña3


1Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Lima, Perú
2Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
3Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Lima, Perú
Email: rhernandezv@usil.edu.pe

 

Citation:
Hernandez RM (2020)  Latin American Participation in the Scientific Production on Eating Disorders in Scopus (2015-2018).
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. Vol 23 (1)



Abstract

The study describes the characteristics of the Latin American scientific production on eating disorders (TCA, by its Spanish initials) in journals indexed in Scopus during the 2015-2018 period. A descriptive and retrospective study in conducted by analysing 986 articles. Any type of publication with no IMRAD structure is excluded. The Latin American scientific production represents 6.6% of the world production. The countries with the largest scientific production include Brazil, Mexico, Chile and Argentina. Most articles are published in the Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios (Mexican Journal of Eating Disorders) and the Journal Brasileiro de Psiquiatría (Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry). In addition, 6.9% of authors are mainly affiliated with the Universidade de Sao Paulo – USP (University of Sao Paulo), followed by the Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (Federal University of Sao Paulo) (3.7%). Moreover, three (3) of the articles with the largest number of citations refer to the publication in the Lancet journal. It is concluded that the Latin American scientific production on eating disorders has been increasing progressively during the last years. However, it still represents a minimum percentage worldwide. It is necessary to continue strengthening the spread of scientific studies, putting emphasis on the prevalence of and factors associated with eating behavior.

Key words: Scientific production, Mental health, Scopus, Peru, Eating Disorders


 


Introduction

Eating behavior is the set of actions that a person practices in response to biological, psychological and socio-cultural circumstances linked to foods, related to eating habits, the selection of foods that are eaten, food preparations and the amount of foods eaten (Osorio, Weisstaub, & Castillo, 2002; & Sámano et al., 2012), and its alteration can cause the appearance of risk behaviors and eating disorders.

Eating disorders (TCA, by its Spanish initials) are chronic conditions that usually occur in the adolescence and are characterized by the dissatisfaction of the body image, fear of gaining weight and obsessive thought about food, being an endemic public health problem, (since they affect the autonomy, self-esteem and social skills) and a physical problem (since they are related to gastro-intestinal, endocrinological, dermatological, cardiovascular and pulmonary complications that imply a significant risk of death), as well as by their growing incidence, severity of associated symptoms, their resistance to treatment, and they increasingly occur at younger ages, persisting until adulthood (Kohn, Golden, 2001; Swanson, Crow, Le Grange, Swendsen, & Merikangas, 2011; Moreno & Ortiz; 2009; Ponce, Turpo, Salazar, Viteri-, Carhuancho & Taype, 2017).

Eating disorders have increased in western countries in recent decades (0.5 to 1%), and most of them are suffered by women of medium or high socioeconomic status with an average age of onset, in 85% of the cases, between 13 and 20 years (Kohn, Golden, 2001; Marín, 2002). They also are the third most common chronic disease among young women, reaching an incidence of 5%. Although it is a disorder that commonly occurs in women, they affect men in a 1:10 ratio. (López, & Treasure, 2011). Furthermore, the increase of the obesity in children and adolescents and its adverse effects on their physical and psychosocial health have generated great concern among health professionals. These interventions must take into account the significant prevalence of body image dissatisfaction, unhealthy practices and eating disorders nowadays (López, Raimann, & Gaete, 2015).

The World Health Organization (WHO) has placed eating disorders among priority mental diseases in children and adolescents, given the health risk they involve. The most common diagnosis among adolescents is Unspecified Eating Disorders (UFED), followed by Anorexia Nervosa and, finally, Bulimia Nervosa (Golden, Katzman, Kreipe, 2003). Similarly, the DSM-5 has allowed re-assigning by category the diagnosis of most eating disorders, which involves a greater clinical utility, mainly with the intention of clarifying the existing criteria and reducing the number of patients placed in a quite heterogeneous second category (Arancibia, 2014).

The foregoing gives us an overview about what is being studied with respect to eating disorders. Therefore, the objective of this study is to describe the Latin American scientific production about eating disorders in journals indexed in Scopus in a 2015-2018 period.

Method

The descriptive-retrospective study considered as analysis unit 986 articles about eating disorders in journals indexed in Scopus during the 2015-2018 period, and their authors mention affiliations with Latin American institutions. Only original articles were included in the analysis, and all those types of publications that do not have the IMRAD structure were excluded. To search for articles, those keywords related to this type of disorder were used in "Title", "abstract" and in "keywords. Additionally, the following keywords were considered to be included in the DSM V vocabulary: "Eating Disorder", "Eating Behavior", "Anorexia Nervosa", "Anorexy", "Bulimia Nervosa", "Bulimia Eating Disorders not Specified", "Binge Eating Disorder", "Binge", "Other Eating Disorders", "Avoidance Disorder of Food Intake", "Avoidance Disorder", "Restrictive Food Intake Disorder", "Restrictive Disorder", "Pica", "Rumination", "Atypical Nerve Anorexia", "Anorexia Nervosa", "Anorexia Nervosa not Phobic to Fat", "Anorexia Nervosa Not Phobic", "Purgative Disorder", "Nocturnal Intake Syndrome"). The frequency of publications per year, affiliation of authors, journal and country were evaluated. Each publication found was checked, and those that met the eating disorder research and the content criteria were selected.

Results

Based on the 986 articles identified in the studied period and according to the inclusion criteria, it can be observed that Brazil, Mexico, Chile and Argentina are the Latin American countries that have a constant scientific production on Eating Disorders. Additionally, from 2015 to 2018, the production of publications has increased by 4.5%, being 2018 the year with the largest production (see Table 1).

Table 1: Latin American scientific production on Eating Disorders in Scopus, 2015-208.

Country / Frequency per year

2015

2016

2017

2018

Total

f

%

f

%

f

%

f

%

Total

%

Brazil

125

55.1

150

63.0

125

50

144

53.1

544

55.2

Mexico

29

12.8

23

9.7

32

12.8

40

14.8

124

12.6

Chile

33

14.5

21

8.8

32

12.8

27

10.0

113

11.5

Argentina

18

7.9

19

8.0

19

7.6

22

8.1

78

7.9

Colombia

8

3.5

10

4.2

20

8

13

4.8

51

5.2

Peru

5

2.2

4

1.7

8

3.2

6

2.2

23

2.3

Ecuador

0

0.0

2

0.8

4

1.6

4

1.5

10

1.0

Uruguay

3

1.3

3

1.3

0

0

2

0.7

8

0.8

Cuba

1

0.4

2

0.8

1

0.4

3

1.1

7

0.7

Puerto Rico

1

0.4

2

0.8

2

0.8

2

0.7

7

0.7

Venezuela

2

0.9

1

0.4

0

0

2

0.7

5

0.5

Jamaica

1

0.4

1

0.4

1

0.4

1

0.4

4

0.4

Panama

0

0.0

0

0.0

2

0.8

2

0.7

4

0.4

Costa Rica

0

0.0

0

0.0

3

1.2

0

0.0

3

0.3

El Salvador

0

0.0

0

0.0

1

0.4

1

0.4

2

0.2

Paraguay

1

0.4

0

0.0

0

0

0

0.0

1

0.1

Nicaragua

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

1

0.4

1

0.1

Dominican Republic

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

1

0.4

1

0.1

Total

227

100

238

100

250

100

271

100

986

100

Of a total of 1,560 authors who have been reported, the existence of 152 affiliations with Latin American institutions is highlighted, the production of Brazilian universities such as University of Sao Paulo – USP; Federal University of Sao Paulo; Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Federal University of Minas Gerais stands out, and they are considered as the first five institutions that have the largest scientific production (see Table 2).

Table 2: Affiliation of Latin American authors in published articles on Eating Disorders.

Affiliation

Country

f

%

University of Sao Paulo - USP

Brazil

108

6.9

Federal University of Sao Paulo

Brazil

58

3.7

Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul

Brazil

44

2.8

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

Brazil

39

2.5

Federal University of Minas Gerais

Brazil

39

2.5

National Autonomous University of Mexico

Mexico

34

2.2

National Scientific and Technical Research Council

Argentina

31

2.0

Federal University of Bahia

Brazil

31

2.0

Federal University of Juiz de Fora

Brazil

28

1.8

University of Buenos Aires

Argentina

26

1.7

University of Chile

Chile

26

1.7

Federal University of Pernambuco

Brazil

26

1.7

Ramon de la Fuente National Institute of Psychiatry

Mexico

24

1.5

UNESP-Sao Paulo State University

Brazil

23

1.5

Federal University of Ceara

Brazil

22

1.4

Pontifical Catholic University of Chile

Chile

22

1.4

State University of Southwestern Bahia

Brazil

21

1.3

Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (Teaching Hospital of Porto Alegre)

Brazil

20

1.3

Oswaldo Cruz Foundation

Brazil

17

1.1

Federal University of Santa Catarina

Brazil

16

1.0

Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul

Brazil

15

1.0

State University of Rio de Janeiro

Brazil

14

0.9

San Sebastián University

Chile

13

0.8

National University of Cordoba

Argentina

13

0.8

Federal Rural University of Pernambuco

Brazil

13

0.8

Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte

Brazil

13

0.8

Federal University of Paraiba

Brazil

12

0.8

Federal University of Vicosa

Brazil

12

0.8

State University of Londrina

Brazil

12

0.8

Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa

Brazil

11

0.7

National Institute of Public Health

11

0.7

University of Brasília

Brazil

11

0.7

State University of Campinas

Brazil

11

0.7

Federal University of Piaui

Brazil

10

0.6

Federal University of Goias

Brazil

10

0.6

Federal University of Espirito Santo

Brazil

10

0.6

Javeriana Pontifical University

Colombia

10

0.6

115 Latin American institutions with a number of authors less than

10

704

45.1

The articles written by Latin American authors have been published mostly in the Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios (Mexican Journal of Eating Disorders) with 24 articles, Jornal Brasileiro De Psiquiatria (Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry) with 20 articles. The other journals consulted correspond to Latin American and European publishing houses, and Plos One stands out with a better H index as an impact factor (see Table 1).

Table 3: Scientific Journals in which Latin American authors have published about Eating Disorders.

Journal

Country

f

H Index

Revista Mexicana De Trastornos Alimentarios

Mexico

24

4

Jornal Brasileiro De Psiquiatria

Brazil

20

19

Plos One

USA

18

268

Appetite

Holland

14

120

Ciencia e Saude Coletiva

Brazil

14

39

Nutricion Hospitalaria

Spain

14

43

Cadernos De Saude Publica

Brazil

10

66

153 journals with less than 10 articles

419

 

The world production on Eating Disorders is represented by 15,045 (fifteen thousand and forty-five) articles published in the studied period. Latin America accounts for 6.6% of this production, represented by 986 articles (see Table 4).

Table 4: Latin American scientific production on Eating Disorders compared to the world production.

 

f

%

Latin America

986

6.6

Total

15045

 

The articles with the largest number of citations are identified. It is found that the publications in the Lancet journal are the most cited publications; highlighting cross-sectional and multicultural studies (see Table 5).

Table 5: Articles about Eating Disorders with a greater number of citations.

Title

Journal

Year

Citations

Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

The Lancet

2017

968

Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

The Lancet

2017

904

Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

The Lancet

2017

495

Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain

Science

2018

183

Transcranial electric stimulation and neurocognitive training in clinically depressed patients: A pilot study of the effects on rumination

Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry

2015

35

Cross-sectional comparison of the epidemiology of DSM-5 generalized anxiety disorder across the globe

JAMA Psychiatry

2017

33

Prevalence and correlates of DSM-5 eating disorders in patients with bipolar disorder

Journal of Affective Disorders

2016

29

Programming of obesity and comorbidities in the progeny: Lessons from a model of diet-induced obese parents

PLoS ONE

2015

27

 

 

 

 

Prevalence of obesity and comorbid eating disorder behaviors in South Australia from 1995 to 2015

International Journal of Obesity

2017

22

Discussion

It is known that eating disorders are devastating behavioral diseases produced by a complex interaction of factors that include emotional and personality disorders, family pressures or a possible genetic or biological sensitivity (Contreras & González Romo, 2010).

The study shows a similar result to that found by Trescastro-López, Trescastro-López and Galiana-Sánchez (2014), who conduct a bibliometric study of programs and interventions about food and nutrition education, finding that largest number of articles have been published in the 2008-2011 period. This can be due to the implementation of the Strategy for Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Prevention, or to initiatives such as reference pilot school program for health and exercise against obesity.

On the other hand, Vega-Dienstmaier (2011) found that between 2001 and 2010, scientific production on mental health in Peru contributed only with 0.03 %. In addition, Pelaez, Labrador and Raich, (2014) say that the existing works on epidemiology of eating disorders in Spain only refer to the data related to specific Autonomous Communities, and not to the general Spanish population.

These types of studies are a way to give relevant information to authorities who can or are able to assign resources to face the development of prevention and promotion of Eating Disorders in Latin America (Vicente, Rioseco, Saldivia, Kohn, & Torres, 2005) due to the poor effectiveness of the sanitary system to respond to challenges posed by new health problem (Ortiz-Hernández, López-Moreno & Borges, 2007). Due to the close relationships between economic factors and mental health, the needs related to the latter must be an important consideration in the implementation of millennium development goals (Knapp, Mossialos & Thornicroft, 2007).

It is necessary to continue studying the Latin American scientific production on Eating Disorders. Although the production is poor, it has been increasing during recent years, valuing the social importance and public health that this issue deserves. In addition, it is important to continue studying the prevalence and associated factors in potentially vulnerable groups. This will allow us to better understand the influences caused by eating disorders.


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