The International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation
 

Psychological contract breach and employees' demographic factors as predictors
of workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian Banking Industry

Foluso Philip Adekanmbi
Wilfred I Ukpere

Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management, Johannesburg Business School,
College of Business & Economic, University of Johannesburg, South Africa,
E-mail: wiukpere@uj.ac.za
 


Citation:
Ukpere WI (2019) Psychological contract breach and employees' demographic factors as predictors of workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian Banking Industry/.
 International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. Vol 22 (2) 149-170



Abstract:

To some scholars, workplace deviant behaviours are seen as employees’ intentional actions, which differ from vital organisational values, and are menacing to an organisation’s wellbeing, that of her members, or both the organisation and her members. Additionally, this viewpoint regarding workplace deviant behaviours has similarly been adopted in the Nigerian banking industry. However, despite the rising focus on research regarding workplace deviant behaviours, and the creation of interventions to reduce it, a few interrelated problems remain ignored and are yet to be suitably examined. Therefore, the aim of this research is to examine psychological contract breach and employees’ demographic factors as predictors of workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. This research adopted a quantitative research approach, as well as used one non-probability sampling method (purposive sampling) and two probability sampling, namely, stratified and simple random sampling. The findings of this paper indicated that psychological contract breach and some employees’ demographic factors significantly jointly predict workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry, However, it was found that psychological contract breach does not significantly, independently predict workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. The findings further indicated that employees’ demographic factors (such as age, level of education, and work experience) significantly predict workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. Notably, employees’ level of education and work experience negatively predict workplace deviant behaviours, while their age positively predicts it. Furthermore, the current investigation noticed that older employees (who are, 50 years old and above) are more prone to engaging in workplace deviant behaviours than younger employees (between, 20-34 years old, and 35-49 years old) in the Nigerian banking industry. The findings also suggested that employees who passed ICAN/CIBN/ACCA qualifications were significantly less disposed to engaging in workplace deviant behaviours compared to their colleagues who had MSC/MBA and HND/BSC qualifications. Additionally, the findings noted that employees who had  11 years of more of work experience were less likely to participate in workplace deviant behaviours, as opposed to their contemporaries who have about 1-5 years and 6-10 years of work experience in the Nigerian banking industry. Furthermore, this paper has established that employees’ perception of psychological contract breach did not make them engage in workplace deviant behaviours, and that employees’ demographic factors (such as age, level of education, and work experience) significantly predicted workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry.

Keywords: Psychological contract breach, Workplace deviant behaviours, Nigeria, Banking industry

 

 


Introduction:

Ethics, instructions and guidelines exist within organisations and all members of such organisations are expected to behave in accordance with these rules. With regard to workplace deviant behaviour, it can either be classified as negative or positive. As stated by Appelbaum et al. (2007), negative behaviours involve for instance, concealing effort, absenteeism, withdrawal, and behaviours which result in disparity within an organisation. The universality of deviant behaviours such as, sexual harassment, theft, fraud, reducing exertions, and aggressive actions in organisations, create major challenges within organisations (Lawrence & Robinson, 2007; Peterson, 2002a). Therefore, the present paper focuses on negative deviant behaviour. Recently, workplace deviant behaviours have become a major concern for both specialists and academics, as its existence threatens the well-being of both employees and the organisation (Lawrence & Robinson, 2007).

Globally, workplace deviant behaviours are a vital double-faceted problem for organisations, as they take place on a large scale and potential problems are shared it is a shared (Bennet & Robinson, 2000). Having great knowledge, as well as dealing with this problem remains a vital area of investigation. In the literature, several scholars have investigated a lot of possible causes of these workplace deviant behaviours, for instance, moral disengagement (Christian & Ellis, 2014; Fida et al., 2015), negative affect (Alias et al., 2013; Fox et al., 2001; Spector, 2011; Samnani et al., 2014), ethical climate (Appelbaum et al., 2005), guilt proneness (Cohen et al., 2013), personality traits (Bolton et al., 2010), have been extensively researched by scholars. Hence, several studies have been done to elucidate workplace deviant behaviours and quite a number of conclusions have been made regarding factors influencing these deviant behaviours, such as, injustice, negative emotions, perceived fairness (Appelbaum et al., 2006; Kantur, 2010).

Actually, the nature of business operations in the Nigerian banking industry permits quite a number of corrupt activities in the industry, as banks and other financial institutions have businesses centre around money transactions, which makes bank employees more inclined to fraudulent practices (Owolabi & Babalola, 2011). According to Ajayi (2003), fraud is predominant in a country like Nigeria, and happens in almost all areas of the country. The workplace deviant behaviours that prevail in the Nigerian banking industry include, sexual harassment as well as bank employees dressing offensively. This could be because, in Nigeria, the introduction of the capitalization policy by Professor Chukwuma Charles Soludo, former CBN Governor, caused a fresh reawakening by all existing banks, forcing banks to engage in a violent money drive when meeting new challenges (Ilupeju, 2008). This new arrangement caused unwarranted conditions for bank employees, mostly for female employees, who were forced to accommodate depositors at all cost even if it went against their individual wishes and desires (Ilupeju, 2008). Olufayo (2011) also posits that in recent times, the Nigerian banking industry has expanded its marketing departments to recruit young, attractive and elegant female employees who are able to make use of their bodies to solicit money. Also, bullying is seen as a common practice in the Nigerian banking industry. Ayodele and Bello (2008) stated that apart from being hostile, bullying is aimed at triggering damage or pain, happens repeatedly, and happens in a situation where there is an imbalance of control or strength. Based on the results of research conducted by Oghojafor, Muo and Olufayo (2012), 91% of their respondents agreed that bullying incidences are on the rise in Nigerian workplaces, particularly in the banking industry.

Practical research studies have confirmed organisational variables, work variables, personal variables, and environmental variables as forecasters of workplace deviant behaviours (Vardi, 2001; Douglas & Martinko, 2001; Fox et al., 2001). Morrison and Robinson (1997 also seen in Griffeth, Hom & Gaertner, 2000) posit that as an employee notices a mismatch in the shared psychological expectations between the organisation and the employee, his or her reaction might result in job displeasure with subsequent increases in malingering and labour turnover. Furthermore, considering the transactional psychological contract and the relational psychological contract as they relate to workplace deviant behaviours, Zribi and Souaï (2013) argue that the impact of a transactional psychological contract breach is obvious in deviant behaviours within organisations. In support of this, Zribi and Souaï (2013) concur that a transactional psychological contract breach definitely influences the expansion of workplace deviant behaviours within the organisation. Also, a relational psychological contract includes relational duties, such as, identification, gratitude, trust and respect. Hence, a fault in this contract can potentially negatively  affect the employee’s self-esteem (Tripp & Bies, 1997). A transactional psychological contract breach could, therefore, produce feelings of wrath, which in turn produce deviant behaviours; while a relational psychological contract breach could lead to intense emotional reactions such as stress and sadness, which could activate vehement actions towards an organisation (Fox & Freeman, 2011). The factor, psychological contract breach, has been linked to several unwanted employee behaviours. However, previous studies, which dealt with psychological contract breach have assumed the equity theory or social exchange theory to explain employees’ reactions in an organisation (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2013). Furthermore, Ugwu and Oji (2013) state that when Nigerian bank employees believe that the organisation has been unsuccessful in fulfilling the psychological contract that they have developed in their job, they tend to reduce their obligation to the organisation as well as exhibit deviant behaviour. Also, in his research, Oji (2015) posits that the independent variable, namely the psychological contract breach of Nigerian bank employees, affects the dependent factor, namely workplace deviant behaviours. This study established a considerable positive connection between psychological contract breach and workplace deviant behaviours. The author further states that should there be no breach of the psychological contract of Nigerian bank employees, they would then have less chances of engaging in deviant behaviours and have more chances of exhibiting organisational citizenship behaviour.

Meanwhile, Lau et al. (2003)’s research findings indicated that sex, age, and marital status as effective predictors of workplace deviant behaviours. However, according to them, age remained the topmost predictor of deviant behaviours. In addition to the previous research findings, Henle (2005) established that age and gender have a significant relationship with workplace deviant behaviours, whereas tenure did not significantly correlate with workplace deviant behaviours. In their own perspective, Huiras et al. (2000) stated that, when reducing workplace deviance, employers need to identify employees’ abilities and work experience and then use this when offering satisfying work which tallies with their career paths. Interestingly, the investigation conducted by Sackett et al. (2006) also reported age, gender, hours of work, marital status, and work experience (in years) as significant predictors of workplace deviant behaviours. Therefore, the purpose of the current paper is to look into the influence of psychological contract breach and employees’ demographic factors on workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry, with an intent to propose strategies of reducing workplace deviant behaviours in the workplace, mainly in Nigeria’s banking industry. However, to achieve the above stated aim, this paper will undertake a quantitative research approach. Hence, the objectives of the present paper are hereby enumerated below:

  • To study the influence of psychological contract breach and employees’ demographic factors on workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking Industry.
  • To develop an empirical model that is useful for effectively reducing workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry.
Literature Review

This section elaborates on the theory of psychological contract breach, and the concept of workplace deviant behaviours. Moreover, it reviews the connection amongst psychological contract breach, demographic factors, and workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry.

Equity Theory

In line with the equity theory, workers create comparisons between the percentages of their own observed inputs and the perceived results of a referent other (Baxamusa, 2012). In organisations, equity is concerned with a psychological or implied contract between the employees and organisations with anticipated inputs and outcomes for both of them, while the employees try to balance giving and receiving in the relationship (Hopkins & Weathington, 2006). Gino and Pierce (2009) submit that supervisors should always try to maintain fairness between themselves and employees, as dishonesty will occur when there is inequity. Employers should adhere to distributive and procedural justice practices when dealing with the sharing of rewards. Distributive justice entails making sure that results are equally disseminated within the organisation (Stecher & Rosse, 2007). Conversely, procedural justice entails whether or not there is fairness of equity in the process that is adopted in assigning rewards (Redmond, 2009). Therefore, increased procedural and distributive justice could help avoid perceptions of unfairness and ultimately workplace deviant behaviours. Whether the compensation is really biased may not be significant for employees, as perceptions of biased pay is not the same as actual biased pay. Hence, an employee might be more willing to accept his/her perception of unequal compensation if their employers do not treat them with respect. They will be more likely to exhibit workplace deviant behaviour to compensate for a perception of underpayment inequity.

The equity theory explicated above will be applied to the current research, as the current paper is interested in investigating the position of Hopkins and Weathington (2006). These researchers noted that equity is concerned with a psychological or implied contract between the employee and organisations with expected inputs and outcomes for both of them. This will be inquired by investigating the current influence of psychological contract breach on workplace deviant behaviours through a survey research method.

The following reviews are on the ideas of psychological contract breach, demographic factors and workplace deviant behaviours.

It is not uncommon for some employees to feel that their employers have failed to fulfil the duties expected of them, in proportion to the contribution made by the employee. Hence, Conway and Briner (2005 as cited in Popoola, Ojo & Adediran., 2014) posit that breach denotes the thought that the organisation has failed in fulfilling duties, while feelings of violation implies some affects ensuing breach. The concepts violation and breach are frequently used interchangeably in studies on psychological contract breach. Yet, more than a decade ago, Morrison and Robinson (1997 as cited in Paillé & Dufour, 2013) made an obvious distinction between the two constructs. They posited that a breach happens in an instance where employees sense a failure in their employers in fulfilling their duties, in proportion to what the employee has contributed. On the other hand, violation is seen as an emotive and affective feeling resulting from the perception that employers have failed to uphold the psychological contract (Popoola et al., 2014). Popoola et al. (2014) further maintain that employees who perceive a breach have higher tendencies to negatively respond, a reaction which might come as reduced commitment, reduced loyalty, as well as organisational citizenship behaviour. Perceptions of psychological contract breach may happen shortly after employees start working in an organisation or several years after they have joined or have enjoyed satisfaction (Popoola et al., 2014).

Workplace deviant behaviours are a set of behaviours which individual employees deliberately choose to exhibit against the benefits of the organisation, as well as that of other employees (Idiakheua & Obetoh, 2012). One of the main problems confronting every organisation is the threat of workplace deviant behaviours (Bashir, Nasir, Qayyum, & Bashir, 2012). Hence, having a clear understanding of these behaviours remains imperative (Yildiz, Alpkan, Ates & Sezen, 2015; Novalien, 2017). Still, workplace deviant behaviours are exhibited among employees in organisations and such behaviours can be organisational or internal (Novalien, 2017). The category of these behaviours can be classified into personal aggression, production deviance, and property deviance. The production deviance is detrimental to the organisation’s general productivity, while property deviance is injurious to the organisation’s physical or palpable assets. Personal aggression is comparable to interpersonal deviance which is harmful to fellow employees (Bennett & Robinson, 2000). Meanwhile, it appears hard to produce the true estimate of the value of going through or encountering these behaviours such as corporate fraud, revenge, bullying, employee theft, withholding efforts, and many more (Idiakheua & Obetoh, 2012). Therefore, this phenomenon needs a focus and ways of being significantly reduced within organisations. From here, the review will focus on the connection between psychological contract breach and workplace deviant behaviours within the Nigerian banking industry.

According to the results of a study conducted by Balogun and Agesin (2014), which was on the degree to which perceived breach of psychological contract predicts absenteeism in the Nigerian banks, breach of psychological contract exerted significant influence on absenteeism in the Nigerian banks. This suggests that bank employees who perceived a breach in their psychological contracts recorded a higher rate of absenteeism within the Nigerian banking industry. Hence, the investigation of Balogun and Agesin (2014) reveals that the occurrence of a psychological contract breach triggers a rise in the Nigerian bank employees’ rate of absenteeism (Balogun & Agesin, 2014). Indeed, the presence of the perception of a contract breach among the Nigerian bank employees discourages them, as well as makes them feel displeased, worthless, and valueless; eventually making them feel high levels of tension (Owolabi & Babalola, 2011). Furthermore, in the Nigerian banks, if major organisational decisions and managerial actions are perceived as going against expectations, employees who have such expectation might experience resentment as well as anger, which could resultantly cause harmful work behaviours and attitudes, such as absenteeism, fraudulent practices and aggressive behaviour (Owolabi et al., 2011; Balogun & Agesin, 2014). In addition, in his study Oji (2015) showed that psychological contract breach influences deviant behaviour significantly in the Nigerian banks. This suggests that when Nigerian bank employees perceive a breach in their psychological contract, they tend to act contrary to the appropriate operations within the banking industry. So, the study of Oji (2015) showed an important positive connection between psychological contract breach and deviant behaviour. Importantly, no better place exists to look into workplace deviant behaviours than in the Nigerian banking industry, because employee deviant behaviour is greater than it is anticipated, as well as it turned out to be a key risk to the existence of a lot of Nigerian banks (Adeyemo & Afolabi, 2007). Also, Adeyemo and Afolabi (2007) found a positive link between psychological contract breach and deviant behaviour. Their study looked into the influence of psychological contract breach on the Nigerian bank employees’ deviant behaviours, and their results revealed that psychological contract breach meaningfully predicted deviant behaviour. All these views have inspired the following hypothesis:

H1: Psychological contract breach significantly predicts workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry.

With regard to demographic factors that could influence workplace deviant behaviours in Nigeria, the study of Fagboungbe, Akinbode, and Ayodeji (2012) showed that demographic variables (for example, job status, age, and work experience) significantly predicted interpersonal deviance among work groups in Nigeria. Going further, the study conducted by Akikibofori (2014) suggests that 80% of the respondents indicated that they sometimes take the company’s property without approval, and this percentage includes the youngest group of respondents who fall between the ages of 21-29. Also, Akikibofori (2014) revealed that respondents between the 21-25 age category engaged more in workplace deviant behaviours. Likewise, these views have inspired the following hypothesis:

H2: Employee’s demographic factors significantly predict workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry.

The next section that will be discussed is the research methodology of the present paper.

Research Methodology

The present researcher adopted a quantitative research approach in the current paper, to examine psychological contract breach and employees’ demographic factors as predictors of workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry.

Research methods include techniques of gathering data. So, a survey research method was adopted in the present investigation. An authorised list of questions, designed to gather responses from respondents on a particular research topic is called a questionnaire (Babbie & Mouton, 2010), and this was utilised as the instrument for retrieving data from participants in the current investigation.

Researchers often find it impossible to investigate the whole population due to its huge size, the resources it requires, as well as limitations in timing. Hence, the current investigation made use of one non-probability sampling method (purposive sampling) and two probability sampling methods (simple and stratified random sampling). Moreover, six hundred (600) employees from ten (10) different commercial banks in Nigeria was the sample size of the present investigation. These respondents were sought within six (6) local government areas of two states in Nigeria (Lagos and Oyo). Meanwhile, a hundred (100) respondents were sought from each local government area, making it a final total of six hundred (600) respondents. Apart from distributing questionnaires physically to the respondents, an online survey was also conducted, from which forty-three (43) respondents were retrieved. From the population size of around 6,000 bank staff from ten commercial banks in Lagos and Oyo states of Nigeria, a sample size of 600 was drawn. So, along with the sample size in the table, the size of the participants from the population size (6,000), falls within 586 to 600 (Morgan & Krejcie, 2012).

Instrumentation

In the current investigation, the measuring scales used to measure the constructs under study were merged to form a questionnaire comprising of different segments.

Section A: Demographic Questions

Section A of the questionnaire focused on the demographic data of the participants (for instance, age, gender, religion, marital status, educational qualifications, job status, location of bank, name of bank, number of dependants, department, work experience in years, and residential area).

Section B: Psychological Contract Breach

An 18-item dimensional measuring scale developed by Lester et al. (2002), incorporating six types of contract breach and a 5-item global measure scale by authors, namely Robinson and Morrison (2000), was adapted as a psychological contract breach measuring scale. The initial Cronbach’s alpha of the 18-item scale was 0.89. This scale consists of a five-scale Likert format of: received much more than promised (5), received slightly more than promised (4), received the same as promised (3), received slightly less than promised (2), and received much less than promised (1). In the second phase of the psychological contract breach namely the global measure by Robinson and Morrison’s (2000) Cronbach’s alpha was initially 0.91. This scale has a six scale Likert format of agree strongly (6), agree (5), agree somewhat (4), disagree somewhat (3), disagree (2), and disagree strongly (1).

Workplace Deviant Behaviours

In measuring workplace deviant behaviours in the current study, the present researcher adopted the Bennett and Robinson’s (2000) 19-item measuring scale, which encompasses 12 items for organisational deviance, as well as 7 items for interpersonal deviance. This measuring scale comprises of a five-point Likert format, namely, Never (1), Seldom (2), Sometimes (3), Often (4) and Always (5). The scale developer arrived at 0.81 Cronbach’s co-efficient in regard to the items for organisational deviance, as well as 0.78 for the Cronbach’s co-efficient in respect to the items for interpersonal deviance. Moreover, in validating the efficiency of the measuring scale, the present study conducted a pilot study. This was done in order to detect, beforehand, any possible shortfalls.

The Pilot Study

In revalidating the questionnaires for the current research, as well as checking its suitability for the culture of the Nigerian banking industry, a pilot study was carried out and checked for potential challenges that could be encountered when answering the questions, as well as determined the time frame required to complete the questionnaire.

Psychological contract breach scale

Out of the 23 items measuring psychological contract breach, 18 items measured dimensions while 5 items formed part of the global measure. Thirteen (13) items out of the 18 had an item-total correlation co-efficient that was below 0.40 and were therefore deleted. Hence, 5 items were retained. All the items for the global measure were retained, as they all showed coefficients above 0.40. In all, 10 were found to be reliable and valid for measuring psychological contract breach in the Nigerian banking industry. The Cronbach’s alpha derived for the items measuring psychological contract breach (Dimension) was 0.88, while the Cronbach’s alpha that was derived for the items measuring psychological contract breach (Global) was 0.88.

Workplace Deviant Behaviours Scale

Research experts reviewed all the 19 items measuring workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry, and found that only 12 items were reliable. Furthermore, the 12 items were put to test and only one (1) item had an item-total correlation coefficient below 0.40, and that item was deleted. Therefore, only 11 items remained valid and reliable for measuring workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. The Cronbach’s alpha derived for the remaining items that measure workplace deviant behaviours came to 0.87. Table 2 below further demonstrates these results.

A stratified random sampling technique was adopted in dividing the population of the study into strata, namely, top management cadre, senior cadre and junior cadre. Then, simple random sampling was conducted. The current researcher then disseminated 600 questionnaires among participants from ten (10) commercial banks in Nigeria. A total of one hundred (100) respondents were sought from each of the six (6) local government areas (Ikeja, Oshodi/Isolo, and Lagos Island; Ibadan north-east, Ibadan south-west, and Ibadan north-west) in Lagos and Oyo States, respectively. During the study, the current researcher maintained the participants’ anonymity in the investigation process, by providing boxes into which completed questionnaires were returned thus ensuring the protection of the participants’ interests and image. Furthermore, one of the experts in the statistical consultation service, namely STATKON (University of Johannesburg, South Africa) designed an online survey, to retrieve some vital online responses, as well as further standardise the questionnaire. Hence, a total number of 537 valid questionnaires were retrieved by the current researcher and these questionnaires were analysed.

Data presentation and analysis

The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS v 24) was utilised in analysing the data retrieved from the respondents. This data was scrutinised as well as cleaned before proceeding to data analysis. The results of the data analysis are presented in the sections below:

Descriptive Summary

Table 1: Demographic variables.

Characteristics

Category

Frequency

Percent (%)

Gender

Male

287

53.4

Female

250

46.6

Total

537

100

Age

20-34

178

33.1

35-49

216

40.2

50 and Above

143

26.7

Total

537

100

Marital Status

Single

209

38.9

Married

328

61.1

Separated

-

-

Divorced

-

-

Total

537

100

Religion

Christianity

350

65.2

Islam

187

34.8

Others

-

-

Total

537

100

Highest Level of Education

ICAN/CIBN/ACCA

148

27.6

MSc/MBA

273

50.8

HND/BSc

116

21.6

Total

537

100

Name of Bank

Guarantee Trust Bank Plc

69

12.8

First Bank of Nigeria Plc

62

11.5

Zenith Bank Plc

57

10.6

Access Bank Plc

66

12.3

Wema Bank Plc

47

8.8

Skye Bank Plc

52

9.7

Stanbic IBTC Bank Plc

34

6.3

First City Monument Bank Plc

56

10.4

United Bank of Africa Plc

55

10.2

Diamond Bank Plc

39

7.3

Total

537

100

Location of Bank

Lagos Island

106

19.7

Oshodi/Isolo

93

17.3

Ikeja

78

14.5

Ibadan South-West

108

20.1

Ibadan North-West

78

14.5

Ibadan North-East

74

13.8

Total

537

100

Job Status

Junior

187

34.8

Senior

210

39.1

Top Management

140

26.1

Total

537

100

Department

 

Marketing

92

17.1

Operations

57

10.6

Corporate Affairs

36

6.7

HR

47

8.8

Funds Transfer

49

9.1

E-Business

54

10.1

Credit

55

10.2

Technology

31

5.8

Administration

26

4.8

Internal Control

45

8.4

Compliance

40

7.4

Other

5

.9

Total

537

100

Work Experience

1-5 years

157

29.2

6-10 years

211

39.3

11 years & Above

169

31.5

Total

537

100

No of Dependant

None

1

.2

1

193

35.9

2

186

34.6

3-4

149

27.7

5 and Above

8

1.5

Total

537

100

Residential Area

Lagos Island

118

22.0

Oshodi/Isolo

58

10.8

Ikeja

101

18.8

Ibadan South-West

96

17.9

Ibadan North-West

59

11.0

Ibadan North-East

105

19.6

Total

537

100

Source: Author’s fieldwork

Table 1 above shows the demographic variables of the respondents, as well as the frequency and percentage of these variables in response to the questionnaire.

Table 2: Summary of the custom table showing item responses, means and standard deviations of psychological contract breach in the Nigerian banking industry.

No

Statements

Received much less than expected (1)

Received slightly less than expected (2)

Received the same as expected (3)

Received slightly more than expected (4)

Received much more than expected (5)

Mean

SD

Ranking

1

The bank’s overall benefits package

30.9%

18.6%

30.2%

18.2%

2.0%

2.42

1.163

8

2

The bank’s health care benefits

22.3%

30.0%

25.9%

18.8%

3.0%

2.50

1.120

6

3

A competitive salary from the bank

26.4%

18.8%

46.0%

6.7%

2.0%

2.39

1.013

10

4

A fair salary from the bank

26.4%

26.6%

27.0%

17.9%

2.0%

2.42

1.121

9

5

Opportunities to grow that is created by the bank

16.4%

37.8%

33.3%

10.1%

2.4%

2.44

0.961

7

 

Average

 

2.43

1.07

 

 

 

No

 

 

Statements

Strongly Disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Disagree Somewhat (3)

Agree Somewhat (4)

Agree (5)

Strongly Agree (6)

Mean

SD

Ranking

6

Almost all the promises I belief I should get in the bank have been kept so far (R)

27.7%

19.7%

2.6%

10.4%

28.1%

16.4%

3.51

1.887

5

7

My employer has fulfilled promises I belief I should get in the bank (R)

23.1%

14.3%

7.4%

14.9%

19.9%

20.3%

3.55

1.882

3

8

Thus far, my employer has done an excellent job of fulfilling his/her expected obligations towards me (R)

16.2%

17.9%

14.7%

14.7%

20.1%

16.4%

3.54

1.723

4

9

I have not received everything that I expected from the bank in exchange for my contributions

12.3%

16.9%

10.2%

2.4%

24.2%

33.9%

4.11

1.865

1

10

My employer has broken many of his/her expected obligations towards me even though I have upheld my end of the deal

12.3%

18.6%

9.3%

17.9%

19.2%

22.7%

3.81

1.736

2

 

Average

 

3.70

1.81

 

Table 2 above shows the Nigerian bank employees’ perceptions of psychological contract breach within the Nigerian banking industry, as well as how they rated the different variable items. According to these mean values, the highest ranked variable item is: “I have not received everything that I expected from the bank in exchange for my contributions”, with a mean score of 4.11, whereas the lowest ranked variable item is: “a competitive salary from the bank”, with a mean score of 2.39. The variable item: “I have not received everything that I expected from the bank in exchange for my contributions” is an item that quantifies the psychological contract breach – global measure, while the item “a competitive salary from the bank” measures the psychological contract breach – dimensional measure. This shows that employees’ perceptions that they did not receive everything that they expected from the bank in exchange for their contributions, is a common occurrence within the Nigerian banking industry. Also, the results indicate that a lot of bank employees disagree that they receive a competitive salary from their employers in the Nigerian banking industry.

Table 3: Summary of the custom table that shows the item responses, means and standard deviations of workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry.

 

 

No

 

 

Statements

Never (1)

Seldom (2)

Sometimes (3)

Often (4)

Always (5)

Mean

SD

Ranking

1

I have taken the bank’s property without permission.

12.5%

34.5%

3.5%

45.3%

4.3%

3.00

1.211

5

2

I have falsified a receipt to get reimbursed by the bank for more money than I spent on business expenses.

49.2%

32.0%

7.8%

10.8%

0.2%

1.81

0.992

10

3

I have taken an additional or longer break than is acceptable within the bank.

16.8%

16.8%

6.7%

51.0%

8.8%

3.18

1.292

3

4

I arrived at work late without permission.

29.8%

19.4%

8.0%

42.6%

0.2%

2.64

1.301

6

5

I litter in the banking environment.

37.8%

36.1%

2.4%

19.4%

4.3%

2.16

1.241

7

6

I intentionally worked slower than I should work in the bank.

6.7%

21.6%

7.8%

54.4%

9.5%

3.38

1.124

1

7

I discussed the bank’s confidential information with an unauthorised person.

53.6%

21.4%

12.1%

12.3%

0.6%

1.85

1.085

9

8

I used an illegal drug or consumed alcohol while working on the job.

49.3%

37.1%

1.5%

12.1%

0.0%

1.76

0.969

11

9

I dragged out work in the bank in order to receive overtime.

12.3%

23.5%

7.3%

43.4%

13.6%

3.23

1.287

2

10

I made an ethnic, religious or racial remark in the bank.

44.9%

18.6%

15.5%

21.0%

0.0%

2.13

1.197

8

11

I acted rudely towards someone at work.

18.2%

14.9%

8.0%

58.8%

0.0%

3.07

1.210

4

Average

 

2.55

1.17

 

Source: Author’s fieldwork

Table 3 above indicates the experiences of the Nigerian bank employees with regard to the display of some form of workplace deviant behaviours, and the way they have rated the various items of workplace deviant behaviour. In line with these mean values presented in the table above, the highest ranked variable item was “I intentionally worked slower than I should work in the bank”, with a mean score of 3.38 whereas the lowest ranked variable item was “I used an illegal drug and consumed alcohol while working on the job”, with a mean score of 1.76. This shows that bank employees working intentionally slower than they should is a common occurrence in the Nigerian banking industry, while the use of an illegal drug or the consumption of alcohol while working is a practice that is hardly ever engaged in by employees in the Nigerian banking industry.

Inferential Statistics

This segment will report the inferences made about the observed population.

Table 4: Coefficients.

Coefficientsa

 

 

 

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

 

 

 

 

t

 

 

 

 

Sig.

95.0% Confidence Interval for B

Collinearity Statistics

B

Std. Error

 

 

Beta

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Tolerance

VIF

1

(Constant)

1.540

.350

 

4.406

.000

.853

2.227

 

 

PCB_DM_GM

.036

.027

.051

1.335

.182

-.017

.090

.973

1.028

Gender

.019

.072

.011

.260

.795

-.122

.159

.750

1.333

Age

.616

.065

.570

9.516

.000

.489

.743

.390

2.563

Marital Status

-.007

.079

-.004

-.088

.930

-.162

.148

.645

1.551

Religion

.049

.076

.028

.649

.517

-.100

.199

.725

1.379

Level of Education

-.257

.060

-.217

-4.311

.000

-.374

-.140

.551

1.813

Job Status

-.081

.068

-.076

-1.184

.237

-.216

.053

.340

2.945

Department

.023

.012

.092

1.928

.054

.000

.046

.619

1.614

Work Experience

-.262

.072

-.246

-3.616

.000

-.404

-.120

.301

3.322

No of Dependants

.005

.046

.005

.116

.907

-.084

.095

.656

1.524

a. Dependent Variable: WDB

Source: Author’s results

Table 4 above shows that out of all the independent variables (such as, psychological contract breach and employees’ demographic factors) exposed to analysis, only employees’ demographic factors (age, level of education, and work experience) significantly predicted variation in the dependent variable (workplace deviant behaviours) in the Nigerian banking industry at (β= .570; β= -.217; β= -.246) respectively.

Table 4.1: The summary of the multiple regression table showing the values of the model.

                                                            R2            β                B           Standard Error (SE)            Confidence Interval (CI) for 95% (B)

Model                                              .265***

Age                                                                 .570***        .616                   .065                                                   .489 /.743

Level of Education                                        -.217***       -.257                   .060                                                  -.374 /-.140

Work Experience                                           -.246***       -.262                   .072                                                  -.404 /-.120

Note: Statistical Significance ***p<.005

The results shown in table 4.1 above indicate that employees’ demographic factors (age, level of education, and work experience) significantly jointly predict workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry (R2 =.265). It also indicated that age independently contributes towards 57% influence on variance or change in the deviant behaviours, level of education independently contributes towards 22% of the change in deviant behaviours, while work experience independently contributes about 25% influence on variance in the deviant behaviours of the Nigerian bank employees. However, an employee’s level of education and work experience negatively predicts workplace deviant behaviours, signifying that the higher the level of education of employees, the lower their potential of engaging in workplace deviant behaviours; and the more their work experience increases, the lower their tendency to engage in deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry, and vice versa.

Figure 1: Model showing the influence of the independent variables predictors (demographic factors: age, level of education, and work experience) on the dependent variable (workplace deviant behaviours) in the Nigerian banking industry

However, it is important to know if there is a significant difference between possible groups of the model factors (for instance, age groups, levels of education, and work experience). Therefore, a stepwise one-way ANOVA analysis was conducted.

Table 5: One-Way ANOVA (between age groups, levels of education groups, and years of work experience groups).

ANOVA

WDB

(between age groups)

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

95.168

2

47.584

93.204

.000

Within Groups

272.627

534

.511

 

 

Total

367.795

536

 

 

 

(between levels of education groups)

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

44.135

2

22.067

36.409

.000

Within Groups

323.661

534

.606

 

 

Total

367.795

536

 

 

 

(between years of work experience groups)

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

35.992

2

17.996

28.962

.000

Within Groups

331.804

534

.621

 

 

Total

367.795

536

 

 

 

Table 5 above indicates a significant difference between age groups, employees’ levels of education, and employees’ years of work experience on workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry (p=<.05). However, this does not indicate the possible differences within each set of groups. Hence, the statistical significance of differences between each set of groups is provided in table 6 that further provides the outcomes of the post-hoc tests.

Table 6: Multiple Comparisons (age groups, levels of education groups, and years of work experience groups).

Multiple Comparisons

Dependent Variable: WDB

Tukey HSD

(I) Age

(J) Age

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

20-34

35-49

-.01202

.07319

.985

-.1840

.1600

50 and above

-.94896*

.08066

.000

-1.1385

-.7594

35-49

20-34

.01202

.07319

.985

-.1600

.1840

50 and above

-.93694*

.07582

.000

-1.1151

-.7587

50 and above

20-34

.94896*

.08066

.000

.7594

1.1385

35-49

.93694*

.07582

.000

.7587

1.1151

*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

(I) Work Experience

(J) Work Experience

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

ICAN/CIBN/ACCA

MSC/MBA

.64826*

.07947

.000

.4615

.8350

HND/BSC

.62488*

.09654

.000

.3980

.8518

MSC/MBA

ICAN/CIBN/ACCA

-.64826*

.07947

.000

-.8350

-.4615

HND/BSC

-.02338

.08629

.960

-.2262

.1794

HND/BSC

ICAN/CIBN/ACCA

-.62488*

.09654

.000

-.8518

-.3980

MSC/MBA

.02338

.08629

.960

.4615

.8350

*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

* Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN); Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria (CIBN); Associate of Chartered Certified Accountant (ACCA); * Masters of Science (MSC); Masters of Business Administration (MBA); Higher National Diploma (HND); and * Bachelors of Science (BSC).

(I) Work Experience

(J) Work Experience

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

1-5

6-10

.24069*

.08308

.011

.0454

.4360

11 and above

-.37750*

.08737

.000

-.5829

-.1721

6-10

1-5

-.24069*

.08308

.011

-.4360

-.0454

11 and above

-.61819*

.08137

.000

-.8094

-.4269

11 and above

1-5

.37750*

.08737

.000

.1721

.5829

6-10

.61819*

.08137

.000

.4269

.4360

*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

Table 6 above reveals that group 1 (employees who are 20-34 years old) and group 3 (50 years old and above) are significantly different from each other at a p=<.05 level; as well as group 2 (employees who are 35-49 years old) and group 3 (employee who are 50 years old and above) are significantly different from each other at a p=<.05 level. However, there is no difference in comparing group 1 and group 2 (p=>.05). These results then infer that group 1 and group 3 differ significantly in terms of their engagement in workplace deviant behaviours, as well as group 2 and group 3 differ significantly in terms of their engagement in workplace deviant behaviours; while group 1 and group 2 do not differ significantly in terms of their engagement in workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry.

Furthermore, table 6 shows that group 1 (Employees who are ICAN/CIBN/ACCA certified) and group 2 (Employees who are MSC and MBA certified) are significantly different from each other at a p=<.05 level, as well as group 1 (Employees who are ICAN/CIBN/ACCA certified) and group 3 (Employees with HND and BSC) are significantly different from each other at a p=<.05 level. However, it also reveals that group 2 (Employees who are MSC and MBA certified) and group 3 (Employees with HND and BSC) are not significantly different from each other at a p=<.05 level. This is an indication that all the three groups differ significantly in terms of their engagement in workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry.

In addition, table 6 reveals that group 1 (1-5 years of work experience) and group 2 (6-10 years of work experience) do not significantly differ from each other at a p=>.05 level. But group 1 and group 3 (11 years of work experience and above) are significantly different from each other at a p=<.05 level. Furthermore, the table shows that group 2 and group 3 are significantly different from each other at a p=<.05 level. These results infer that all the three groups differ significantly in terms of their engagement in workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry.

Table 7 below shows the actual differences in the mean scores between all the sets of groups, which are meant to corroborate the differences explained above.

Table 7: Descriptive.

Descriptive

WDB

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Minimum

Maximum

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

20-34

167

1.6287

.52987

.04100

1.5478

1.7097

1.00

3.50

35-49

222

1.6408

.56546

.03795

1.5660

1.7156

1.00

3.25

50 and above

148

2.5777

1.02803

.08450

2.4107

2.7447

1.00

4.25

Total

537

1.8953

.82836

.03575

1.8250

1.9655

1.00

4.25

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Minimum

Maximum

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

ICAN/CIBN/ACCA

148

2.3598

.74472

.06122

2.2388

2.4808

1.00

3.50

MSC/MBA

273

1.7115

.85313

.05163

1.6099

1.8132

1.00

4.25

HND/BSC

116

1.7349

.61969

.05754

1.6209

1.8489

1.00

3.50

Total

537

1.8953

.82836

.03575

1.8250

1.9655

1.00

4.25

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Minimum

Maximum

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

1-5

157

1.8710

.76198

.06081

1.7509

1.9911

1.00

4.25

6-10

211

1.6303

.59528

.04098

1.5495

1.7111

1.00

3.50

11 and above

169

2.2485

.99646

.07665

2.0972

2.3998

1.00

4.25

Total

537

1.8953

.82836

.03575

1.8250

1.9655

1.00

4.25

Table 7 above corroborates the facts of no significant difference between the mean scores of group 1 (1.63) and group 2 (1.64). Meanwhile, as corroborated by the results in table 7, a significant difference exists between the mean scores of group 1 (employee who are 20-34 years old = 1.63) and group 3 (50 years old and above = 2.58); and a significant difference exists between the mean scores of group 2 (35-49 years old = 1.64) and group 3 (employees who are 50 years old and above = 2.58). Furthermore, table 7 reveals results which corroborate a significant difference between the mean scores of the three groups: group 1 (Employees who are ICAN/CIBN/ACCA certified = 2.36), group 2 (Employees who are MSC and MBA certified = 1.71) and group 3 (Employees with HND and BSC = 1.73); as well as with the years of work experience: group 1 (employees with 1-5 years of work experience = 1.87), group 2 (employees with 6-10 years of work experience = 1.63) and group 3 (11 years of work experience and above = 2.25).

With regards to the effect size, which is the strength of the difference between groups or the influence of these independent variables on workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry, the following formula was used to determine it (Cohen, 1988, p. 284-287):

The effect of the difference between groups, or the influence of the independent variables on workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry is determined according to Cohen’ s (1998, p. 284-287) classification of effect sizes: .01 as a small effect, .06 as a medium effect and .14 as a large effect. Thus, the following effect sizes are determined:

  1. For age groups (see table 5 above):
  1. For level of education groups (see table 5 above):
  1. For years of work experience groups (see table 5 above):

The results above show that there is a statistically significant difference (at a p=<.05 level) in workplace deviant behaviours for the three age groups: F (2, 534) = 93, p =<.05. Hence, the effect size for the age groups calculated, using the eta squared, was .26; which is an indication of a very strong difference between age groups and that these differences strongly influence workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. Therefore, there is an indication that there is no significant difference in how employees who are 20-34 years old and those who are 35-49 years old take part in deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. However, the results suggest that older employees (for instance, those who are 50 years old and above) are more likely to participate in workplace deviant behaviours than younger employees (for instance, those who are 20-34 years old and those who are 35-49 years old) in the Nigerian banking industry and the results show that group 3 (employees who are 50 years old and above) has a mean score of (M = 2.58) compared to that of group 1 (participants who are 20-34 years old) (M = 1.63) and group 2 (employees who are 35-49 years old) (M = 1.64). Hence, age significantly positively predicts workplace deviant behaviours (β= .64) in the Nigerian banking industry.

Furthermore, the results above indicate a statistically significant difference at a p=<.05 level in workplace deviant behaviours for the three levels of education groups: F (2, 534) = 36, p =<.05. As for the levels of education, the effect size calculated was .12, which specifies an averagely strong difference between level of education groups, and an average influence on workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. The results then show that employees who are ICAN/CIBN/ACCA certified, engage in or disengage from workplace deviant behaviours significantly differently from those who are MSC/MBA certified, and HND/BSC qualified. However, having stated in table 4.1 that employees’ level of education negatively predicts workplace deviant behaviours (β = -.217), it infers that employees with higher levels of education (ICAN/CIBN/ACCA) will significantly have a lower tendency of engaging in workplace deviant behaviours compared to their colleagues who have an MSC/MBA or HND/BSC level of education. This is also shown in the Post-hoc comparisons using the Turkey HSD test, which indicated the mean scores of the groups: group 1 (Employees who are ICAN/CIBN/ACCA certified - M = 2.36), group 2 (Employees who are MSC and MBA certified - M = 1.71) and group 3 (Employees with an HND and BSC - M = 1.73).

In addition, the results above specify a statistically significant difference (at a p=<.05 level) in workplace deviant behaviours for the three levels of education groups: F (2, 534) = 29, p =<.05, which suggests significant differences in how employees who have 1-5 years of work experience, those with 6-10 years of work experience, as well as the ones who have 11 years of work experience and above engage in workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. However, the results indicate that employees who have a significantly more years of work experience (for instance, 11 years of work experience and above) are less likely to engage in workplace deviant behaviours than those with fewer years of work experience (for instance, 6-10 years and 1-5 years of work experience) in the Nigerian banking industry. The direction of this influence was indicated in table 4.1 above (β = -.246). Thus, the differences in the influences of these groups on workplace deviant behaviours were further revealed in the Post-hoc comparisons: group 1 (1-5 years of work experience - M = 1.87), group 2 (6-10 years of work experience - M = 1.63) and group 3 (11 years of work experience and above - M = 2.25).

Discussion

The results stated above revealed that psychological contract breach does not predict workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. This was indicated in table 5 above, which suggests that the Nigerian bank employees would not engage in workplace deviant behaviours, if they perceived a breach in their psychological contract (β= .051, p>.05). As aforementioned, the equity theory postulates that equity is concerned with a psychological or implied contract between the employees and the organisations with expected inputs and outcomes for both of them, which if breached results in reactions from the party perceiving the breach (Hopkins & Weathington, 2006). Also, Popoola et al. (2014), as earlier mentioned, maintain that an employee who perceives a breach of the psychological contract has a higher tendency to negatively respond, which could be in the form of reduced loyalty, commitment, and less organisational citizenship behaviours. Also, as earlier noted, Balogun and Agesin (2014), posit that a psychological contract breach triggers a rise in the rate of absenteeism brought about by Nigerian bank employees. It was also aforementioned that a perceived psychological contract breach among Nigerian bank employees discourages them; makes them feel worthless, dissatisfied, and valueless; and sooner or later makes them feel high levels of pressure (Owolabi & Babalola, 2011). However, despite these facts and submissions from both equity theory and the above-named scholars, the current findings in the Nigerian banking industry does not support these assertions; as it shows that a perceived psychological contract breach does not make the Nigerian bank employees engage in workplace deviant behaviours. Notably, the workforce within the Nigerian banking industry (the results of the current investigation) have attested to the fact that they have perceived some level of psychological contract breach, as 52.3% of the employees agreed that they received less overall health care benefits than they expected, 52.6% agreed that they received a salary, which was less than they expected, 54.2% agreed that they received less opportunities than they thought they deserved, and 60% agreed that they have not received everything that they expected from the bank in exchange for their contributions. Nevertheless, this did not influence their rate of engagement in workplace deviant behaviours. The results may then be corroborated by the fact that, although the Nigerian bank employees may perceive some measure of psychological contract breach, engaging in deviant behaviours which could result in dismissal might not prompt them to engage in such behaviour, as it is difficult to find other jobs, and also because Nigeria does not have a welfare system and benefits like many western countries do (Agarwal, 2011). Hence, they would be reluctant to quit their jobs or reduce their commitment to the job, or even engage in a disruptive relationship with their employers. Nigerian bank employees are eager to remain employed even when they observe a breach in their psychological contract. Consequently, perceived psychological contract breaches do not prompt the engagement of employees in workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry.

Furthermore, the findings in the current paper show that age, level of education, and work experience are the employees’ demographic factors that significantly predict workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. These results further indicated that age positively influences workplace deviant behaviours, while level of education and work experience negatively predicts them within the Nigerian banking industry. This is an indication that the higher the employees’ level of education and years of work experience, the lower their likelihood of engaging in workplace deviant behaviours. The results moved on to expatiate the fact that older employees (for instance, 50 years old and above) are more likely to engage in workplace deviant behaviours than the younger employees (for example, 20-34 years old, and 35-49 years old) in the Nigerian banking industry. The results further shed light on the influence of employees’ level of education, with regard to the fact that employees who have ICAN/CIBN/ACCA qualifications will be significantly less disposed to engaging in workplace deviant behaviours compared to their contemporaries who have MSC/MBA and HND/BSC qualifications. The findings went a step further to noting that employees who have work experience of about 11 years and above, will be less disposed to engage in workplace deviant behaviours, as opposed to their colleagues who have about 1-5 years and 6-10 years’ work experience in the Nigerian banking industry.

Therefore, the results in table 4 above have presented the two propositions of this paper, namely, psychological contract breach significantly predicts workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry, and that employee’s demographic factors significantly predict workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. These results have also met the first objective of the present investigation which is to investigate the influence of psychological contract breach and employees’ demographic factors on workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry.

The current paper’s second objective, which is to develop an empirical model useful for effectively reducing workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry, is achieved through the findings of the current research. Hence, this empirical model is revealed in figure 2 below:

Figure 2: Empirical model of reducing workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry

Source: author’s findings

Practical implications

Based on the findings of the current paper, pertinent practical implications exist for work organisations. Age, level of education, and work experience significantly predict workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. Therefore, employees of the Nigerian banking industry engage more in workplace deviant behaviours the older they get. This has a significant implication for human resources management, with regard to the selection, employment decisions and policies of human resources management within the work organisations. According to the current findings, organisations that employ and encourage a higher percentage of younger employees will possibly greater benefits by experiencing a decrease in the level of workplace deviance engaged in amongst their employees as opposed to organisations that do not employ a higher percentage of younger employees. However, the amount of pension security available  in a country has the ability to reduce workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. Countries  that have a high percentage of employees receiving their pension funds after their retirement, have less older employees within their organisations and can therefore prevent increased engagement in workplace deviant behaviours (Reisel et al., 2010). Consequently, an attractive pension coverage should be promoted within work organisations in Nigeria, especially the banking industry. Also, from the social bonding viewpoint, Sims (2002) is of the opinion that individuals who have low social bonding and involvement with their supervisors are more prone to breaking rules (for instance, they display a behaviour called ethical-rule breaking). Therefore, the managements of work organisations in Nigeria should foster a strong social tie amongst older employees in the workplace, reducing such behaviour as ethical-rule breaking.

Also, the present findings suggest that the Nigerian bank employees who have ICAN/CIBN/ACCA qualifications will be significantly less predisposed to engage in workplace deviant behaviours compare to their contemporaries who have MSC/MBA and HND/BSC qualifications. This has an implication for the human resources of work organisations in the Nigerian banking industry, in terms of considering applicants’ level of education during recruitment exercise, giving increased consideration to applicants with higher educational levels. Also, organisations should consider an educational loan advancement scheme for their employees, with the aim of advancing employees with basic levels of education (for instance, pursuing a professional qualification such as an ICAN/CIBN/ACCA) despite their immediate qualification which could be MSC, MBA, BSC, and or HND. Therefore, the Nigerian banks can moderate the effect of employees’ level of education on workplace deviant behaviours by providing up-to-date and consistent training programmes, to equip their employees with skills that will help reduce workplace deviant behaviours of any form.

Furthermore, the current findings infer that employees with work experience of about 11 years and above will be less predisposed to engage in workplace deviant behaviours, in comparison to their colleagues who have about 1-5 years and 6-10 years of work experience in the Nigerian banking industry. Hence, work organisations in Nigeria, especially within the Nigerian banking industry, should consider employees’ work experience when trying to reduce workplace deviant behaviours. The human resources managers should consider this with potential applicants, as well as make use of the very experienced employees within the industry, in training and mentoring their colleagues who are not as experienced as they are.

Limitations

The current paper has examined psychological contract breach and employees’ demographic factors as predictors of workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry, and its findings have been enumerated above. However, this study has some limitations. Firstly, the sample focused on employees of commercial banks in Nigeria, hence, the results may not be generalised to employees from other economic sectors of the country. Another limitation of the current investigation is that it adopted only a quantitative approach, whereas a mixed method approach could have yielded more robust information on the phenomenon under investigation. Also, this investigation was conducted within the south-western part of Nigeria. Nevertheless, these shortcomings did not in any way affect the objectivity of this paper.

The next section expresses the paper’s conclusion and recommendations.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The core goal of this research was to examine psychological contract breach and employees’ demographic factors as predictors of workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry following its discoveries, this paper can conclude that employees’ age, level of education, and work experience predict workplace deviant behaviours in the Nigerian banking industry. Hence, this paper would like to assert that employees’ age positively predicts workplace deviant behaviours, while their level of education, as well as work experience negatively predicts them in the Nigerian banking industry.

However, future researchers in this field should include factors such as organisational support, work-life balance, and training and development when examining strategies to address workplace deviant behaviours. In addition, it is highly recommended that this investigation should be applied to other economic sectors of Nigeria. Also, future studies could aim to cover other parts of Nigeria, other than the south-west.


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