The International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation
 
Influence of Behavioral Counseling Techniques, Token Economy and Parent’s Parenting
Class of Behaviour Prosocial X Syamsulhude Tegallinggah



Luthfi Fuadi

Department of Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Education,
University of Education Ganesha
Singaraja, Indonesia
e-mail: luthfi.fuadi08@gmail.com


Citation:
Fuadi L. (2017)
Influence of Behavioral Counseling Techniques, Token Economy and Parent’s Parenting Class of Behaviour
 Prosocial X Syamsulhude Tegallinggah
. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. Vol 21 (2) 90-98


 


Abstract
Research this aims to determine: (1) differences in prosocial behavior among students who received behavioral counseling techniques  token economy with students who do not receive behavioral counseling techniques  token economy,(2) differences in prosocial behavior among students who are parenting her acceptance to students who are parenting of his rejection parents, and (3) the effect of the interaction of behavioral counseling techniques token economy and parenting parents toward prosocial behavior. This research is a quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent pretest-posstest control.group design. The population of this research is the class x totaling 30 students. Samples were taken by using purposive sampling with the number of members of the sample 14 students who have low prosocial behavior and very low. Data collection methods used were a questionnaire and analyzed by analysis of variance of two lanes. Research results revealed that: (1) there are differences in prosocial behavior of students who received behavioral counseling techniques token economy and students do not get, (2) there are no differences in prosocial behavior among students who are parenting their parents acceptance and students who are parenting their parents rejection and(3) there is no interaction effect behavioral counseling techniques token economy and parenting parents toward prosocial behavior. The results of this research can be used as a reference for teachers to be able to support Counseling in providing guidance to students who do not understand prosocial behavior.

Keywords: behavioral counseling, parental care, prosocial behavior, token economy techniques


Introduction:

Adolescence is a period where a person would have more contact with other people. Because at this time, teens will be more activities outdoors and spend time together with their peers so that when the teen already has a familiarity with his friends will arose various behaviors including prosocial behavior.

Prosocial behavior that is behavior that is intended to benefit others more than oneself (Ormrod, 2009: 132) Asia 2008; Phenomenological, Police, & Cross, 2007; Guillermo, nd; Haryati, 2013; For, S-, and By, 2008). As Batson stated that prosocial behavior is a broader category. Where in prosocial behavior includes all actions that cause or purposely designed to help others regardless of the motives of the helper (Asia 2008; phenomenological et al., 2007; Guillermo, nd; Haryati, 2013; To et al., 2008) , Eisenberg (2010) suggested that prosocial behavior is often defined as the deliberate and voluntary behavior that is beneficial to others.

From some of these opinions, it can be concluded that prosocial behavior is the behavior one does to an individual or group in the form of interaction, collaboration, and help others as well as respect for others so that people can benefit from the induced behavior without asking for any compensation.

In the era of this modern, prosocial behavior is needed in the midst of rampant antisocial behavior that occurs in the community in general and teenagers in particular teenage boys today, especially children who are still in MA / high school age ranging between 16-18 years rather than go in the opposite many prosocial behavior among adolescents who commit antisocial behavior. Thus it can be said that the tendency of teenagers to do more menurun.Mereka prosocial behavior is more concerned with himself than anyone else. They will be more likely to be indifferent to others, has a self-centered attitude, individualistic and have unstable emotions as well as the establishment of easily changeable.

The results of the early researchers conducted observations and interviews with teachers at the school MA BK Syamsul Huda, during practice internshif ppl and practice in the classroom and outside the classroom, it was found that the students had problems with prosocial behavior. After the researchers observe, there are students who show less prosocial behavior, such as when looking at one of his friends who fell in public, but instead of helping them become a laughingstock, students also often helped his friend just to get compliments. There are also students who are not able to share with friends, for example, there are friends who want to borrow stationery, however, not given by reason of fear is lost or not returned so that they seem stingy.

In addition, students also lack the ability to be able to work in groups: students who do not have responsibility for the group study and discussion, making it less able to take part in group work and students who often fight with his friend in a group because it has a different opinion. It can be seen when there are students who are not proficient in a particular subject, then these students tend to shut down and did not dare to be frank with the group.

This sort of behavior is behavior that is negative, if not immediately addressed this behavior can have an impact on students' social relationships and this situation certainly can cause problems in students so that more students who have problems in itself including prosocial behavior problems. To minimize this BK teachers already provide guidance and counseling, but it has not been able to show any changes in the student so that researchers feel the need to examine more deeply about prosocial behavior. One way that can be used to overcome the problem of prosocial behavior that occurs in MA Syamsul Huda is with behavioral counseling approach.

Behavioral counseling is an adaptation of the flow of behavioristic psychology that emphasizes attention on the observed behavior. According to (., Prof. Dr. Gede Sedanayasa, and Dra. Ni Nengah Madri Antari, 2014; Indayani, Sedanayasa, Nengah, and Antari, 2014. Students, viii, Smp, Sawan, and Lesson, 2013; Sutarjo, WMP, and Suarni, 2014) behaviorism is a scientific view of human behavior. 'Argument is essentially that the behavior was orderly and that the closely controlled experiments will reveal the laws that control the behavior. Behaviorism focuses on individual behavior. According to him, the behavior of individuals arise because of the stimulus (stimulus). His reaction may include motion and physical changes that can be observed objectively and can be studied.

In behavioral counseling, there are several techniques. But one of the techniques used in this research was  the token economy.Corey states, token economy is a strategy to avoid direct reinforecement Award, an award token that can be exchanged later with various goods desired by the counselee. When the desired behavior has tended to settle, giving token gradually reduced (Komalasari, 2011: 166).

Token economy is a form of behavior modification or system reward designed to increase desirable behaviors and reducing undesirable behaviors with the use of a token (sign / card). Studies show that children tend to help and share if they have been rewarded for behavior prosocial (Taylor, Peplau and Sears, 2009: 464) (Atthowe & Krasner, 1968; AE Kazdin, 1982; a E. Kazdin & Bootzin, 1972; Phillips Phillips, Fixsen, & Wolf, 1971). While Corey said the method "token economy can be used to shape behavior and reinforcement when other intangible no effect" (Koeswara, 2013: 222).

Advantages of the use of token economy, ie; (1) The token does not diminish the value of incentives, particularly when the power acquisition(earningpower)and its value increases with an increase in behavior, (2) the token can reduce the delay between the desired behavior with a reward(reward),(3) the token can be used as motivator concrete(concrete motivator)to change a particular behavior, (4) the token is a form of positive reinforcement, (5) the individual has the opportunity to determine how to use the token obtained, (6) token economy can lead to an increase in moral counselees and staff, (7) token system can allow to measure social reinforcement, (8) token as a bridge between the institution and life outside of school.

In addition to engineering token economy to see the effect on students prosocial behavior researchers also look at parenting parents. Where the parenting style or parenting parents was a major influence on social and personality development of children (John, 2011: 450). In line with this Thoha (1996: 109) explains that parenting parents is a best way to be taken by the parents as the realization of his responsibility to the child. Parenting applied every family is different from other families.

According Santrock (2007: 195) (Linda, 2011; National, 2003; Rachmayanti & Zulkaida 2011) parents are influential figures in the adolescent search for identity. Parents are a very important role in the socialization process of children. In general, the child's relationship with his parents was so close that parents have an important role in shaping the behavior of adolescents Thus, the prosocial behavior of children can be affected by how parenting parents in the home to parenting parents is a factor that has a role in how prosocial behavior of children in his life.

Education experts generally classify patterns of care the elderly in the family into three, namely: patterns of upbringing authoritarian(authoritarian),patterns of care liberal(permissive),and patterns of care democratic(authoritative)as saying by Madrid and Oka 2008: 81 Santrock 2007: 195; Linda, 2011; National, 2003; Rachmayanti & Zulkaida, 2011). Meanwhile, according to Ivory (1990: 29-42) parenting can be divided into two, namely: parenting acceptance parenting and rejection. However, in this study the researchers refer to two parenting, namely parenting acceptance and parenting rejection.upbringing Acceptance marked by love with the child, pay attention to the needs of children, birth expected, praising the child, warm, caring, and full acceptance. While parenting rejection characterized by the birth of a child is not expected, censorious, ignoring the needs of children, aggressive, consider the child as an opponent.

Based on the above exposure, the researchers wanted to assess the effect of behavioral counseling techniques token economy and upbringing of parents of class X student prosocial behavior Syamsul Huda MA 2017/2018.

METHODS
This study included quasi-experimental research(quasi-experiment)with the draft"pretest-posstest nonequivalent control group design". Where the population in this study were students of class X numbered 30 people.

The samples in this study were taken by using purposive sampling technique(purposive sampling). Purposive sampling is a sampling technique that is based on the traits or characteristics (destination) established in accordance with the purpose of research. Sample this study amounted to 14 students dbagi into two groups, the experimental group and the control group. In the experimental group were divided into two groups: those who received token economy parenting rejection and the group receiving the token economy with parenting acceptance,while for a control group, who either did not get the token economy parenting rejection and groups that do not get a token economy with parenting acceptance. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
To determine prosocial behavior data(posttest)which will be analyzed to test the hypothesis, first tested the equivalence of prosocial behavior before treatment(pretest)between the experimental group and the control group. To test for equality using the technique of the t-test(t-test)with SPSS 16.0 for Windows.Footage results of the comparison can be seen in Table 0.1 below:

     

Table 0.1 Results of t-test 

 

 

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

 

 

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

 

 

Lower

Upper

pretest scores

Equal variances assumed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,677 .209 .139 22 .891 .16667 1.20080 -2.32364

 

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

20,305 .891 .16667 1.20080 -2.33575 2.66908

 

 

 

 

 

.139

 

From table 0.1 above shows that the value oft with a probability of 0.891. Since the probability of 0.891, it can be concluded that there is no difference prosocial behavior before treatment (pretest)between the experimental group and a control group so that the average of the experimental group and the control group is the same.

The results indicate normality greater significance value of 0.05, thus it can be said that each of the groups are normally distributed. As for the statistical test of homogeneity is done with the help of statistical test Levene test program SPSS 16.0 for Windows. Homogeneity test conducted on four sets of data to find out the results of prosocial behavior of students come from a homogeneous population. The results of the test Levene test are shown in Table 0.2 below:

 

able 0.2 Homogeneity Test

 

 

Levene Statistic

DF1

DF2

Sig.

posttest

Based on Mean

.972

3

20

.425

Based on Median

.982

3

20

.421

Based on Median and with adjusted df

.982

3

17 704

.424

Based on the mean trimmed

.975

3

20

.424

Based on table 0.2 with homogeneity test results Levene test of homogeneity of variance showed that significant value is higher than 0.05. This indicates that the data are homogeneous or derived from populations with the same variance. Summary results of hypothesis testing with SPSS Statistics 16.0 for Windows is presented in Table 0.3 below: 

Table 0.3 Analysis of variance of two paths


Dependent Variable: Y

 

 

 

 

Source

Type III Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

CorrectedModel

51716.500a

17238.833

3

2.164E3

.000

Intercept

392704.167

1

392704.167

4.929E4

.000

X1

51708.167

1

51708.167

6.491E3

.000

X2

.167.886

1

 

.021

.167

X1 * X2

8,167.323

1

 

1,025

8,167

Error

159 333

20

7967

 

 

Total

444580.000

24

 

 

 

Corrected Total

51875.833

23

 

 

 

a. R Squared = .997 (Adjusted R Squared = .996)

Specification;

X1 = behavioral counseling techniques token economy

X2 = parenting parents

 


First hypothesis test results show that the value of X1 to sig. = 0.000 <0.05 means there are differences between students who received behavioral counseling techniques token economy with students who do not get a behavioral counseling token economy techniques.

2 Hypothesis test results showed that the value of X2 with sig. = 0.886> 0.05 means that there is no difference between students who are parenting their parents acceptance by students parenting parents rejection.

Furthermore, the results of hypothesis testing 3 shows that the value of X1 and X2 with sig. = 0.323> 0.05 means that there is no influence behavioral counseling techniques token economy and parenting parents on student prosocial behavior.

DISCUSSION
Based on the results of data analysis has proven that there are significant differences prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior of students who received behavioral counseling techniques token economy better than students who did not get a behavioral counseling token economy techniques.Based on the description of the results of the pretest and results description posttest can be seen that the increase in prosocial behavior was higher in the experimental group. So there are differences influence behavioral counseling techniques token economy toward prosocial behavior of students.

More effective behavioral counseling techniques token economy to improve prosocial behavior of students due to behavioral counseling techniques token economy is a technique which is a technique in behavioral counseling which is a form of behavior modification or system reward designed to increase desirable behaviors and reducing undesirable behaviors by user token (sign / card). Individuals receive tokens immediately after showing the desired behavior. The award is given to students is to be able to support prosocial behavior so that social relations, especially in the school would be more effective, therefore, the award shall be a neutral stimulus. Tokens are collected and can be exchanged with an object or a meaningful honor.

After being given treatments student can show an increase in prosocial behaviors with symptoms such as a change in the behavior of students who pick and choose a friend to be helped now have started to help a friend no matter who was helping, of which do not like to share their knowledge with friends during the learning process takes place , is now beginning to share their knowledge in a way teaching friends about things that are not yet understood in the learning process, students who had been always lie and say something does not comply with conditions such as cheating during replication, is now beginning to be honest and do ulangannya own.

While the control group who did not receive behavioral counseling techniques token economy has not shown an increase in prosocial behavior. Thus it is clear the group receiving behavioral counseling techniques token economy are superior prosocial behavior compared with those not getting behavioral counseling techniques token economy.

Results obtained using the two-lane anava value X2 with sig. = 0.886> 0.05 means that there is no difference between students who are parenting their parents acceptance by students parenting parents rejection.Thus it can be concluded that parenting is not a significant influence on prosocial behavior.

Furthermore, the results of hypothesis testing 3 obtained by ANOVA two paths that the value of X1 and X2  with sig. = 0.323> 0.05. meaning there is no interaction effect between behavioral counseling techniques token economy and parenting parents toward prosocial behavior in students.

CONCLUSION

Based on the results of research and  discussion that has been done can be summarized as follows. (1) There are significant differences between student prosocial behavior of students who received behavioral counseling techniques token economy with students who did not get a behavioral counseling techniques token economy (sig. = 0.000 <0.05), (2) there are significant prosocial behavior students, among students with parents' parenting acceptance and parenting parents rejection (sig. = 0.886> 0.05), and (3) no significant interaction effect between behavioral counseling techniques token economy and parenting parents toward prosocial behavior students of class VIII SMP Lab. Undiksha (sig. = 0.323> 0.05).


References
AntariUniversity,Ni Nengah Madri.2008. ParentingOldpeople:Guidance Counseling Department, Faculty of Education UNDIKSHA Singaraja. Unpublished.

Apsari, Ni Kadek Dwi Budini. Effectiveness of Behavioral Counseling Model 2014. Mechanical Token Economy And Positive Reinforcement Technique To Improve Achievement Motivation In Class X High School Lab. Undiksha Singaraja in academic year2013/2014. Singaraja: Guidance and Counseling Department of the Faculty of Education Ganesha Education University Counseling Department eJournal Undiksha, Vol: 2 No: 1 Year: 2014.

Baron, Robert and Donn Byrne. 2005. SocialPsychology.Jakarta: Erland.

Bringham, JC 1991. Social Psychology. Second Edition. New York: Harper Collins Publishers Inc.

Carlo, Gustavo and Brandy A. Randall.2002.The Development of a Measure of Prosocial Behaviors for Adolescents Late.Published in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31: 1 (February 2002), pp. 31-44.

Corey, Gerald. 2013. Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Bandung: PT Refika Aditama.

Dantes, Nyoman. 2012. Methods.Yogyakarta: Andi Offset.

Dantes, Nyoman. 2014. Analysis and Design of Experiments. Singaraja: Graduate Undiksha.

Dayakisni. T and Hudaniah.2003. Social Psychology.Malang: UMM Press.

Dewi, Noorwindhi Kartika. 2014. Influence of Extracurricular Activities Scouting Prosocial Behavior Against Teen In SMP Santa UrsulaJakarta,Surabaya: Journal of Indonesian Psychology Masters Program in Psychology at the University August 17, 1945 Surabaya, September 2014, Vol. 3, No. 03, p 253-268

Eisenberg, N. Fabes., RA, Murphy, B.Karbon, M.Maszk, P., Smith, M. and Boyle, C. (1994). The Relation of Emotion and Regulation to Dispotitional and Situational Empathy Related Responding.Journal Of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 467-472.

Fauzi Achmat.2013.Hubungan Harmony Between Family And Social Support Peers With Prosocial Behavior of Adolescents In SMAN 2Jombang,Surabaya: Thesis Program Dakwah And Science PsikologiFakultas KomunikasiInstitut Sunan Ampel State Islamic.

Ivory, I Ketut. 1990.Hubungan Between Attitudes of Parents Against Youth and Learning Achievement in Adolescent Self Concept.BPPS. UGM, 3 (IA) 29-42.

Kartono, Kartini. 1990. Child Psychology (Developmental Psychology). Bandung: Mandar Maju.

Kartono, Kartini.1996.Personal guidanceMandiri.Bandung: Tarsito.

Kazarian, Shahe S., Moghnie Lamia, Rod A. Martin. Perceived Parental Warmth and Rejection in Childhood As Predictors of Humor Styles and Subjective Happines.Europe's Journal of Psychology, 6 (3), pp.71-93

Komalasari, Gantina.2011. Counseling Theories andTechniques.Jakarta: PT index.

Koyan, I Wayan.2012.Statistics Education Quantitative Data Analysis Techniques.Singaraja: Ganesha Education University Press.

Lestari, Sri.2012. Planting Values Family Psychology and Conflict Resolution in the Family. Jakarta: Kencana

McDonnell, Shayla.2012. Implementation of Token Economies in SchoolSettings.Lynchburg College

Ormrood, Jeanne Ellis.2008. Educational Psychology Helping Students Grow. Jakarta: Erland.

Rohner, RP 2010. Perceived Teacher Acceptance, Parental Acceptance, and the Adjustment, Achievement, and Behavior of School-Youths Going Internationally, Cross-CulturalResearch.44 (3) 211-221.

Sugiyono. 2008. Education Research Methods (Quantitative Approach, Qualitative and R & D).Bandung: Alfabeta.

Taylor, Shelley E., Letitia Anne Peplau, David O.Sears.2009. Social Psychology Twelfth Edition. Jakarta: Kencana.

, SPP, Prof. Dr. Gede Sedanayasa, MP., And Dra. Ni Nengah Madri Antari, ME. (2014). Application of Behavioral Counseling With Reward Giving Techniques To Improve Student Motivation a3 Class Smp Viii Sawan School 2 School Year 2013/2014. Scientific Journal of Guidance andCounseling, 2(1). Retrieved from https://ejournal.undiksha.ac.id/index.php/JJBK/article/view/3731

Asia, N. (2008). Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Assertiveness With Prosocial Behavior of Youth. Retrieved from http://eprints.ums.ac.id/3577/

Atthowe, JM, & Krasner, L. (1968). Preliminary report on the application of contingent reinforcement procedures (token economy) on a "chronic" psychiatric ward. Journal of AbnormalPsychology, 73(1), 37-43. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0025439

phenomenological, S., Police, P., & Cross, L. (2007). ROAD USER BEHAVIOR TOWARD PROSOCIAL (phenomenological study TRAFFIC POLICE IN), 1-323. Retrieved from http://eprints.undip.ac.id/10427/1/skripsi_adria.pdf

Guillermo, R. (nd). Sariling atin: Ang nagsasariling komunidad pangkomunikasyon na Pilipino sa disiplinang Araling. Retrieved from http://www.celap.org.cn/attach/0/1301040803436716726.pdf

Haryati, TD (2013). Emotional Maturity, Religiosity and Prosocial Behavior Hospital Nurses. Persona, Indonesian PsychologyJournal, 2(2), 162-172. Retrieved from http://eprints.undip.ac.id/10427/1/skripsi_adria.pdf

Indayani, A., Sedanayasa, G., Nengah, N., & Antari, M. (2014). Behavior minimize Ditching In Class X. 1 Sma Negeri 1 Sawan, (1). Retrieved from http://ejournal.undiksha.ac.id/index.php/JJBK/article/download/3916/3129

Kazdin, AE (1982). The token economy: a decade later. Journal of Applied BehaviorAnalysis, 15(3), 1308287. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1982.15-431

Kazdin, a E., & Bootzin, RR (1972). The token economy: an evaluative review. Journal of Applied BehaviorAnalysis, 5(3), 343-372. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1972.5-343

Linda, O. (2011). Education and Employment Relations Parents and Parenting the Toddler Nutritional Status in the city and district of Tangerang, Banten. Proceedings Eksaskta Science Field Research2011,134-141. Retrieved fromhttp://www.lemlit.uhamka.ac.id/files/makalah9Ony.pdf,

the National  USP (2003). Legislation national education system. Retrieved from http://eprints.dinus.ac.id/14666/1/uu_20-2003_sisdiknas.pdf

Phillips, EL, Phillips, EA, Fixsen, DL, & Wolf, MM (1971). Achievement Place: modification of the behaviors of pre-delinquent boys within a token economy123. Journal of Applied BehaviorAnalysis, 4(1), 1310667. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1971.4-45

Rachmayanti, S., & Zulkaida, A. (2011). Self-Acceptance Against Children Parents Role In Autism And Autism Therapy. Scientific Journal ofPsychology,7-17. Retrieved from http://www.ejournal.gunadarma.ac.id/index.php/psiko/article/view/277

Students, P., viii, K., Smp, A., Sawan, N., & Lessons, T. (2013). MODEL APPLICATION TECHNIQUE BEHAVIORAL COUNSELING systematic desensitization to minimize LEVEL OF ANXIETY IN LEARNING PROCESS OF CLASS VIII A2 Junior 2 Sawan STATE OF LESSONS 2012/2013. Retrieved from http://ejournal.undiksha.ac.id/index.php/JJBK/article/download/900/770

Sutarjo, IE, WMP, DA, & Suarni, NK (2014). Effectiveness Theory of Behavioral and Brain Gym Relaxation Techniques to Reduce Burnout Learning In Class VIII students SMP SINGARAJA UNDIKSHA Laboratory Academic Year 2013/2014. E-Journal Undiksa Department of Guidance andCounseling, 2(1). Retrieved from http://ejournal.undiksha.ac.id/index.php/JJBK/article/download/3740/2995

To, S, S, S., & By, D. (2008). The relationship between spiritual intelligence and personality types extrovert toward prosocial behavior in students. Retrieved from http://eprints.undip.ac.id/10427/1/skripsi_adria.pdf


 

Copyright 2017 ADG, SA. All Rights Reserved.  
A Private Non-Profit Agency for the good of all, 
published in the UK & Honduras