Several decades of research have indicated that many individuals with a range of psychiatric disorders regain functioning and return to community life. The consumer-driven recovery movement and professional community of researchers and service providers have collaborated to clarify definitions and processes related to recovery from psychiatric disorders, but many questions remain about the implementation of the recovery philosophy in service systems. The present article focuses on experiences of one state psychiatric hospital in its movement toward implementing the recovery model. The following research questions will be the focus of this article: How can psychiatric hospitals sustain a recovery philosophy when individuals have restricted movement and limited choices for the purpose of protecting themselves or others from harm? What have been the successes and the problems experienced by one state psychiatric hospital in its drive to systemically implement a recovery perspective?
Anthony, W. A. (1993). Recovery from mental illness: The guiding vision of the mental health service system in the 1990s. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 16, 11-11.
Anthony, W. A., Cohen, M. R., Farkas, M. D., & Gagne, C. (2002). Psychiatric rehabilitation. Boston, MA: Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Boston University.
Bloom, S. L. (2013). Creating sanctuary: Toward the evolution of sane societies. New York: Routledge. Bodenheimer, T., Lorig, K., Holman, H., & Grumbach, K. (2002). Patient self-management of chronic disease in primary care. JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(19), 2469-2475.
Bopp, J. H., Ribble, D. J., Cassidy, J. J., & Markoff, R. A. (1996). Re-engineering the state hospital to promote rehabilitation and recovery. Psychiatric Services,47(7), 697-698.
Davidson, L., Borg, M., Marin, I., Topor, A., Mezzina, R., & Sells, D. (2005). Processes of recovery in serious mental illness: Findings from a multinational study. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 8(3), 177-201.
Davidson, L., O'Connell, M. J., Tondora, J., Lawless, M., & Evans, A. C. (2005). Recovery in serious mental illness: A new wine or just a new bottle? Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 36(5), 480-487.
Davidson, L., O'Connell, M., Tondora, J., Styron, T., & Kangas, K. (2006). The top ten concerns about recovery encountered in mental health system transformation. Psychiatric Services, 57(5), 640-645.
Department of Justice (2008). Letter to the Honorable Theodore R. Kulongoski. Retrieved May 25, 2013 from: http://www.justice.gov/crt/about/spl/documents/oregon_state_hospital_findlet_01-09-08.pdf
Diamond, R. J. (2006) A Special Report: Recovery from a psychiatrist’s viewpoint. Postgraduate Medicine, 54-62.
Geller, J. L. (2000). The last half-century of psychiatric services as reflected in Psychiatric Services. Psychiatric Services, 51(1), 41-67.
Goffman, E. (1961). Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company
Governor’s Commission on Psychiatric Inpatient Services (1988). Improving the quality of Oregon’s psychiatric inpatient services. Salem, OR: State of Oregon. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from: http://www.localcommunities.org/lc/039/FSLO-1232584442- 245039.pdf.
Governor’s Mental Health Task Force (2004). Report to the Governor and Legislature: A blueprint for action. Salem, OR: State of Oregon.
Harding, C. M., Brooks, G. W., Ashikaga, T., Strauss, J. S., & Breier, A. (1987). The Vermont longitudinal study of persons with severe mental illness, II: Long-term outcome of subjects who retrospectively met DSM-III criteria for schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144(6), 727-735.
Harding, C. M., & Zahniser, J. H. (1994). Empirical correction of seven myths about schizophrenia with implications for treatment. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 90(s384),140-146.
Harrison, G., Hopper, K., Craig, T., Laska, E., Siegel, C., Wanderling, J., ... & Wiersma, D. (2001). Recovery from psychotic illness: a 15-and 25-year international follow-up study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 178(6), 506-517.
Hu, T. (2006). Perspectives: an international review of the national cost estimates of mental illness, 1990-2003. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 9(1), 1-41.
Jacobson, N., & Greenley, D. (2001). What is recovery? A conceptual model and explication. Psychiatric services, 52(4), 482-485.
Kaufman Global (2011). The Oregon State Hospital Excellence Report. Retrieved on February 7, 2013 from: http://www.mentalhealthportland.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/60655469-Oregon-State-Hospital-Excellence-Report.pdf
Kessler, R. C., Heeringa, S., Lakoma, M. D., Petukhova, M., Rupp, A. E., Schoenbaum, M., Wang, P. S., et al. (2008). The individual-level and societal-level effects of mental disorders on earnings in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(6), 703.
Livneh, H. (1984). Psychiatric rehabilitation: A dialogue with Bill Anthony. Journal of Counseling and Development, 63, 86-90.
Longo, D. A., Marsh-Williams, K., & Tate, F. (2002). Psychosocial rehabilitation in a public psychiatric hospital. Psychiatric Quarterly, 73(3), 205-215.
McLoughlin, K. A., Webb, T., Myers, M., Skinner, K., & Adams, C. H. (2010). Developing a psychosocial rehabilitation treatment mall: An implementation model for mental health nurses. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 24(5), 330-338.
Onken, S. J., Craig, C. M., Ridgway, P., Ralph, R. O., & Cook, J. A. (2007). An analysis of the definitions and elements of recovery: A review of the literature. Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 31(1), 9-22.
Pratt, C. W., Gill, K. J., Barrett, N. M., & Roberts, M. M. (2007). Psychiatric rehabilitation (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Riley, S. V. (2009). Building a treatment mall. Oregon State Hospital's new campus in Salem will employ this care model. Behavioral Healthcare, 29(8), 28-30.
Schrank, B., Bird, V., Rudnick, A., & Slade, M. (2012). Determinants, self-management strategies and interventions for hope in people with mental disorders: Systematic search and narrative review. Social Science & Medicine, 74(4), 554-564.
Schrank, B., & Slade, M. (2007). Recovery in psychiatry. Psychiatric Bulletin, 31(9), 321-325.
Silverstein, S. M., & Bellack, A. S. (2008). A scientific agenda for the concept of recovery as it applies to schizophrenia. Clinical psychology review, 28(7), 1108-1124.
Slade, M., Amering, M., & Oades, L. (2008). Recovery: an international perspective. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, 17(2), 128-137.
Smith, R. C. (1998). Rehab Rounds: Implementing Psychosocial Rehabilitation With Long-Term Patients in a Public Psychiatric Hospital. Psychiatric Services, 49(5), 593-595.
Sowers, W. (2005). Transforming systems of care: The American Association of Community Psychiatrists guidelines for recovery oriented services. Community Mental Health Journal, 41(6), 757-774.
Starkey, D., & Leadholm, B. A. (1997). Prism: The psychiatric rehabilitation integrated service model—A public psychiatric hospital model for the 1990s. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 24(6), 497-508.
Teich, S. T., & Faddoul, F. F. (2013). Lean Management—The Journey from Toyota to Healthcare. RMMJ, 4(2), 1-9.