Table 2. Dependent Measure of Attitude Towards Person in Scenario
Instructions, Scale, and Questions
Instructions: Based on the fictitious scenario you just read, please respond to the following questions honestly by clicking on the response that indicates your opinion.
Please use the following scale:
SA = Strongly agree
A = Agree
2. I would feel safe in the described situation.
*3. I would consider relocating if in the described situation.
*4. I would worry about others in my life if in the described situation.
5. I would try to keep an open mind about the described situation.
6. I would encourage others to give this new person a chance.
7. I would help this person transition into their new situation.
8. I would welcome this person into their new situation.
Regarding the MARS, there were main effects for type of reintegration across all traits assessed and no interactions between type of reintegration and neighborhood or workplace. To begin, the individual in the scenario without a psychiatric or correctional history (control condition) was perceived as happier (F(1,3) = 16.90, p < .001) than the other groups. Tukey post hoc analysis indicates that the control condition was perceived as happier than all other groups at a significant level (less than .001) with no significant difference between the other 3 groups.
Beck, A. J. (2000). State and federal prisoners returning to the community: Findings from the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/sfprc.pdf
Browne, G., Hemsley, M., &
Chikaodiri, A. N. (2009). Attitude of health workers to the care of psychiatric patients. Annals of General Psychiatry, 8(19). doi: 10.1186/1744-859X-8-19
Corrigan, P. W., Larson, J. E., & Kuwabara, S. A. (2007). Mental illness stigma and the fundamental components of supported employment. Rehabilitation Psychology, 52(4), 451-457. doi: 10.1037/0090-55188.8.131.521
Corrigan, P. W., & Shapiro, J. R. (2010). Measuring the impact of programs that challenge the public stigma of mental illness. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(8), 907-922. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.06.004
Draine, J., & Herman, D. B. (2007). Critical time intervention for reentry from prison for persons with mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 58(12), 1577-1581.
Forchek, C., Reynolds, W., Sharkey, S., Martin, M. L., & Jensen, E. (2007). Transitional discharge based on therapeutic relationships: State of the Art. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 21(2), 80-86. doi: 10.1016/j.apnu.2006.11.002
Graham, S. A. (1980). Psychotherapists’ attitudes toward offender clients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48(6), 796-797.
Halperin, G., & Boz-Mizrahi, T. (2009). The Amitim program: An innovative program for the social rehabilitation of people with mental illness in the community. Israeli Journal of Psychiatry, 46(2), 149-156.
Harris, P. M., & Keller, K. S. (2005). Ex-offenders need not apply: The criminal background check in hiring decisions. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 21(6), 6-30.
Jenkins, J. H., & Carpenter-Song, E. A. (2009). Awareness of stigma among persons with schizophrenia: Making the contexts of lived experience. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197(7), 520-529. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181aad5e9
Lieberman, P. B., Wiitala, S. A., Elliott, B., McCormick, S., & Goyette, S. B. (1998). Decreasing length of stay: Are there effects on outcomes of psychiatric hospitalization? American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 905-909.
Link, B. G., Phelan, J. C., Bresnahan, M., Stueve, A., & Pescosolido, B. A. (1999). Public conceptions of mental illness: Labels, causes, dangerousness, and social distance. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 1328-1333.
Lynch, J. P., & Sabol, W. J. (2001). Prisoner reentry in perspective. Retrieved from: http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/410213_reentry.PDF
Lyons, C., Hopley, P., & Horrocks, J. (2009). A decade of stigma and discrimination in mental health: The more things chance, the more they stay the same. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 16, 501-507. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2009.01390.x
Osher, F., Steadman, H. J., & Barr, H. (2003). A best practice approach to community reentry from jails for inmates with co-occurring disorders: The APIC model. Crime and Delinquency, 49(1), 79-96. doi: 10.1177/00111287022392367
Petersilia, J. (2003). When
prisoners come home: parole and prisoner reentry.
Phillips, L. A., & Lindsay, M. (2011). Prison to society: A mixed methods analysis of coping with reentry. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55, 136-154. doi: 10.1177/0306624X09350212
Pogorzelski, W., Wolff, N., Pan, K., & Blitz, C. L. (2005). Behavioral health problems, ex-offender reentry policies, and the “Second Chance Act.” American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1718-1724. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.065805
Quereshi, M. Y. (2000). The invariance of certain personality factors over four decades. Current Psychology, 19(1), 21-27.
Richie, B. E., Freidenberg, N., & Page, J. (2001). Reintegrating women leaving jail into urban communities: A description of a model program. Journal of Urban Health, 78(2), 290-303.
Ross, C. A., & Goldner, E. M. (2009). Stigma, negative attitudes and discrimination towards mental illness within the nursing profession: A review of the literature. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 16, 558-567.
Rossotto, E., Wirshing, D. A., & Liberman, R. P. (2004). Enhancing treatment adherence among persons with schizophrenia by teaching community reintegration skills. Psychiatric Services, 55(1), 26-27.
Servais, L. M., & Saunders, S. M. (2007). Clinical psychologists’ perceptions of persons with mental illness. Processional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38(2), 214-219. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.38.2.214
Shivy, V. A., Wu, J. J., Moon, A. E., Mann, S. C., Holland, J. G., & Eacho, C. (2007). Ex-offenders reentering the workforce. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(4), 466-473. doi: 10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.2066
Switaj, P., Wciorka, J., Smolarska-Switaj, J., & Grygiel, P. (2009). Extent and predictors of stigma experienced by patients with schizophrenia. European Psychiatry, 24, 513-520. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2009.06.003
Travis, J. (2005). But they all come back: Facing the challenges of prisoner reentry. Washington, D. C.: The Urban Institute Press.
US Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association. (2008). Retrieved from: http://www.uspra.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=4145
van Olphen, J., Eliason, M. J., Freudenberg, N., & Barnes, M. (2009). Nowhere to go: How stigma limits the options of female drug users after release from jail. Substance Abuse, Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 4, 1-10. doi: 10.1186/1747-597X-4-10
Olphen, J., Freudenberg, N., Fortin, P., & Galea, S. (2006). Community reentry:
Perceptions of people with substance use problems returning home from
Webb, A. K., Jacobs-Lawson, J. M., & Wadell, E. L. (2009). Older adults’ perceptions of mentally ill older adults. Aging and Mental Health, 13(6), 838-846.
Yasui, N. Y., & Berven, N. L. (2009). Community integration: Conceptualization and measurement. Disability and Rehabilitation, 31(9), 761-771. doi: 10.1080/09638280802306638